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PowerPlus Group was among the E50 winners in For-profit higher education known as for-profit college or proprietary education in some instances refers to higher education educational institutions operated by private, profit-seeking businesses. University of Phoenix has been the largest for-profit college in the US. Since , for-profit colleges have received greater scrutiny and negative attention from the US government, state Attorneys General, the media, and scholars. In , Purdue University Global formerly Kaplan University and Grand Canyon University became non-profit colleges serviced by for-profit corporations.
Between and , prices at public colleges and universities rose 34 percent above inflation, and prices at private nonprofit institutions rose 26 percent above inflation. Students often use scholarships , student loans , or grants to supplement their tuition costs, rather than paying all tuition out-of-pocket. A considerable number of private liberal arts colleges and universities offer full need-based financial aid, which means that admitted students will only have to pay as much as their families can afford based on the university's assessment of their income.
Universities with exceptionally large endowments may combine need-based financial aid with need-blind admission , in which students who require financial aid have equal chances to those who do not. Financial assistance comes in two primary forms: Grant programs and loan programs. Grant programs consist of money the student receives to pay for higher education that does not need to be paid back, while loan programs consist of money the student receives to pay for higher education that must be paid back.
Public higher education institutions which are partially funded through state government appropriation and private higher education institutions which are funded exclusively through tuition and private donations offer both grant and loan financial assistance programs. Grants to attend public schools are distributed through federal and state governments, as well as through the schools themselves; grants to attend private schools are distributed through the school itself independent organizations, such as charities or corporations also offer grants that can be applied to both public and private higher education institutions.
Grant programs, as well as work study programs, can be divided into two primary categories: Need-based financial awards and merit-based financial awards. Most state governments provide need-based scholarship programs, while a few also offer merit-based aid. The federal government also has two other grants that are a combination of need-based and merit-based: In order to receive one of these grants a student must be eligible for the Pell Grant, meet specific academic requirements, and be a US citizen.
A student's eligibility for work study programs is also determined by information collected on the student's FAFSA. The intent of need-based financial aid is to close the gap between the required cost to pay for the higher education and the money that is available to pay for the education.
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Merit-based financial awards are money given to a student based on a particular gift, talent, conditional situation, or ability that is worthy of the monetary award, regardless of economic standing. The intent of merit-based financial aid is to encourage and reward students who exhibit these qualities, in the hopes that they will attend the university providing the merit-based award or scholarship. Not only does merit-based assistance benefit the student, but the benefit is seen as reciprocal for the educational institution itself, as students who exhibit exceptional qualities are able to enhance the development of the school itself.
Financial aid has also been found to be linked to increased enrollment. A study conducted by the National Bureau of Economic Research found that an increased availability of any amount of financial aid leads to increased enrollment rates. Further benefit has been noted with academic-based scholarships, augmenting the effects of financial aid by incentivizing the scholarship with performance-based requirements. Many companies offer tuition reimbursement plans for their employees, in order to make the benefit package more attractive, to upgrade the skill levels and to increase retention.
Many different types of loans can be taken out by a student or the student's parents in order to pay for higher education. In general these can be divided into two categories: There are four kinds of student loans available through the government: A student's eligibility for any of these loans, as well as the amount of the loan itself is determined by information on the student's FAFSA. The interest rate and whether or not interest accrues on the loan while the student is in school depends of the type of federal loan. For example, subsidized Stafford Loans do not accrue interest while a student is enrolled in a university, whereas unsubsidized Stafford Loans accrue interest as soon as a student receives them.
In , the Federal Perkins Loan program expired. Students can also acquire loans privately, through banks, credit unions, savings and loan associations, or other finance companies ref. Private loans are typically used to supplement federal student loans, which have a yearly borrowing limit.
However, private loans typically have more rigid repayment policies. US taxpayers may be eligible for tax credits designed to help make higher education more affordable. There are two different tax credits meant to help defray the costs of higher education: Rhode Island, Tennessee, and Oregon offer free tuition for community college students.
The City University of New York also offered free tuition from to Legislation for free community college has been proposed in 11 other states: Religious denominations established most early colleges in order to train ministers. Harvard College was founded by the colonial legislature in Harvard initially focused on training young men for the ministry, and won general support from the Puritan government, some of whose leaders had attended either Oxford or Cambridge.
James Blair , the leading Church of England minister in the colony, was president for 50 years , and the college won the broad support of the Virginia gentry. It trained many of the lawyers, politicians, and leading planters. Yale College was founded in , and in was relocated to New Haven, Connecticut. The conservative Puritan ministers of Connecticut had grown dissatisfied with the more liberal theology of Harvard, and wanted their own school to train orthodox ministers.
Many Protestant denominations, as well as the Catholics, opened small colleges in the nineteenth century. All of the schools were small, with a limited undergraduate curriculum based on the liberal arts. Students were drilled in Greek, Latin, geometry, ancient history, logic, ethics and rhetoric, with few discussions and no lab sessions. Originality and creativity were not prized, but exact repetition was rewarded. The college president typically enforced strict discipline, and the upperclassman enjoyed hazing the freshman.
Many students were younger than 17, and most of the colleges also operated a preparatory school. There were no organized sports, or Greek-letter fraternities, but literary societies were active. Tuition was very low and scholarships were few. Many of their students were sons of clergymen; most planned professional careers as ministers, lawyers or teachers.
Summarizing the research of Burke and Hall, Katz concludes that in the 19th century:. These colleges especially promoted upward mobility by preparing ministers and thereby provided towns across the country with a core of community leaders.
The elite colleges became increasingly exclusive and contributed relatively little to upward social mobility. By concentrating on the offspring of wealthy families, ministers and a few others, the elite Eastern colleges, especially Harvard, played an important role in the formation of a Northeastern elite with great power. There were no schools of law in the early British colonies, thus no schools of law were in America in colonial times.
A few lawyers studied at the highly prestigious Inns of Court in London, while the majority served apprenticeships with established American lawyers. In the 18th century, Americans had graduated in medicine in Edinburgh, Scotland, but most physicians in the colonies learned as apprentices. In New York, the medical department of King's College was established in , and in awarded the first American M. At the beginning of the 20th century, fewer than 1, colleges with , students existed in the United States.
The number of colleges skyrocketed in waves, during the early and mid 20th century. State universities grew from small institutions of fewer than students to gigantic campuses with 40, more students, as well as a network of regional campuses around the state. In turn the regional campuses broke away and became separate universities. To handle the explosive growth of K—12 education, every state set up a network of teachers' colleges, beginning with Massachusetts in the s.
After , they became state colleges and then state universities With a broad curriculum. The Association of Catholic Colleges and Universities was founded in and continues to facilitate the exchange of information and methods. Major new trends included the development of the junior colleges. They were usually set up by City school systems starting in the s. Junior colleges grew from 20 in number In , to in By , 37 states had set up 70 junior colleges, enrolling about students each.
Meanwhile, another were privately operated, with about 60 students each. Rapid expansion continued in the s, with junior colleges in enrolling about 70, students. The peak year for private institutions came in , when there were junior colleges in all; were affiliated with churches, were independent non-profit, and 34 were private Schools run for-profit. Many factors contributed to rapid growth of community colleges. Students parents and businessmen wanted nearby, low-cost schools to provide training for the growing white collar labor force, as well as for more advanced technical jobs in the blue collar sphere.
Four year colleges were also growing, albeit not as fast; however many of them were located in rural or small-town areas away from the fast-growing metropolis.
Community colleges continue as open enrollment, low-cost institutions with a strong component of vocational education, as well as a low-cost preparation for transfer students into four-year schools. They appeal to a poorer, older, less prepared element. College students were involved in social movements long before the 20th century, but the most dramatic student movements rose in the s.
In the s, students organized for civil rights and against the Vietnam War. In the s, students led movements for women's rights and gay rights , as well as protests against South African apartheid  The same period saw a distinct rise in student GPAs. While for-profit colleges originated during Colonial times, growth in these schools was most apparent from the s to about For-profit college enrollment, however, has declined significantly since , after several federal investigations.
For-profit colleges were criticized for predatory marketing and sales practices. In , the documentary Fail State chronicled the boom and bust of for-profit colleges, highlighting the abuses that led to their downfall. Changing technology and politics have resulted in dramatic changes in US higher education during the 21st century. Student protests and clashes between left and right appeared on several US campuses in On August 11, , White nationalists and members of the alt-right rallied at the University of Virginia , protesting the removal of a statue of Robert E.
According to the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, "years of cuts in state funding for public colleges and universities" have made college less affordable and less accountable for students. The long-term consequences of a decline in state funding for public colleges and universities are fewer low-income students, more non-residents of the state non-resident tuition is typically three times resident tuition , and higher tuition. Since the Great Recession , U. At the University of Maryland, Northrop Grumman has funded a cybersecurity concentration, designs the curriculum in cybersecurity, provides computers and pays some cost of a new dorm.
Murray State University's engineering program was supported by computer companies. Students can apply to some colleges using the Common Application. With a few exceptions, most undergraduate colleges and universities maintain the policy that students are to be admitted to or rejected from the entire college, not to a particular department or major. This is unlike college admissions in many European countries, as well as graduate admissions. Some students, rather than being rejected, are "wait-listed" for a particular college and may be admitted if another student who was admitted decides not to attend the college or university.
The SAT's usefulness in the admissions process is controversial. It may or may not be biased, and it may or may not serve as a check on grade inflation in secondary schools. Nevertheless, some colleges are making the SAT optional for applying students. In —08, American students numbering , studied outside the country with more than , of these studying in Europe. The largest number, ,, came from China.
Every state has an entity designed to promote coordination and collaboration between higher education institutions. A few are listed: In the s and s significant changes in the economics of academic life began to be felt, identified by some as a catastrophe in the making and by others as a new era with potentially huge gains for the university. Some critics identified the changes as a new " corporatization of the university.
And until the mids, when federal expenditures for higher education fell sharply, there were routinely more tenure-track jobs than Ph. In , by contrast, despite rising tuition rates and growing university revenues especially in the U. However, a large proportion of such Ph. They chose between adjunct positions, which paid less and lacked job security; teaching jobs in community colleges or in high schools, where little research is done; the non-academic job market, where they will tend to be overqualified; or some other course of study, such as law or business.
While student-faculty ratios remained the same since , administrator-student ratio went from 1—84 to 1— The money that colleges have been receiving have gone into administration and staff and not teaching. Academics seem to think that the business world is in a feudal environment characterized by huge status differences and abusive treatment of underlings.
They think that because, to be honest, that's a pretty good characterization of With academic institutions producing Ph. The sociologist Stanley Aronowitz wrote: In , some [ who? Aronowitz ascribed this problem to the economic restructuring of academia as a whole:. In fact, the program of restructuring on university campuses, which entails reducing full-time tenure-track positions in favor of part-time, temporary, and contingent jobs, has literally "fabricated" this situation. The idea of an academic "job market" based on the balance of supply and demand in an open competitive arena is a fiction whose effect is to persuade the candidate that he or she simply lost out because of bad luck or lack of talent.
The truth is otherwise. Universitas 21 ranked the country as having the best higher education system in the world in Cost was not considered in the rankings. Numerous organizations produce rankings of universities in the United States each year. A University of Michigan study has confirmed that the rankings in the United States have significantly affected colleges' applications and admissions.
On 19 June , during the annual meeting of the Annapolis Group , members discussed the letter to college presidents asking them not to participate in the "reputation survey" section of the U. As a result, "a majority of the approximately 80 presidents at the meeting said that they did not intend to participate in the U. News reputational rankings in the future. On 22 June , U. News firmly believe the survey has significant value because it allows us to measure the "intangibles" of a college that we can't measure through statistical data.
Plus, the reputation of a school can help get that all-important first job and plays a key part in which grad school someone will be able to get into. The peer survey is by nature subjective , but the technique of asking industry leaders to rate their competitors is a commonly accepted practice. The results from the peer survey also can act to level the playing field between private and public colleges. News has been supplying this exact college information for many years already.
News first collects all these data using an agreed-upon set of definitions from the Common Data Set. Then we post the data on our website in easily accessible, comparable tables. Some fields of study produce many more graduates than the professions can take in. Due to the resulting higher education bubble , these graduates often have to consider jobs for which they are overqualified, or that have no academic requirements. People with higher education have always tended to have higher salaries and less unemployment than people with less education.
However, the type of degree has a large impact on future earnings. It must be kept in mind, however, that these figures are only averages. There is a significant amount of overlap in the earning power of different levels of education, and the different fields of study. Although vocational education is usually less financially lucrative in the long term than a bachelor's degree, it can still provide a respectable income at much less cost in time and money, sometimes with the option of upgrading to a bachelor's degree at a later date.
Even ten years after graduation, there are many people with a certificate or associate degree who earn more money than those with a B. Over seven percent of the nation's community college students already possess a bachelor's degree. College majors ranked in ascending order by the percentage of college graduates with degrees in those fields who are employed in jobs that do not require a college degree.
The unemployment and underemployment rates are for recent college graduates between the ages 22 and Wages and expected job openings of skilled trades with educational requirements ranging from an associate degree to a high school diploma. Data is from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Socioeconomic status can play a significant role in an individual's enrollment, performance, and completion of their college degree and pursuit of higher education. Students who work long hours in high school are less likely to pursue post-secondary education.
When considering how a college degree affects labor market outcomes, it is especially important to consider differences in socioeconomic status SES. For example, research shows that students of low SES are more likely than their high SES peers to delay entering a college. Research in the area of delayed college enrollment is not extensive, however, a clear theme emerges in that lower SES students constitute a much larger percentage of students that delay enrollment, while students of higher SES tend to enroll immediately after high school. For example, for example a decrease in crime, greater philanthropic contributions, lower government expenditures, higher voter turnout, and greater participation in overall community spaces.
Attaining even higher degrees than a bachelor's degree can also be affected by socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status can also influence performance rates once at a university. According to a study, students with a low socioeconomic status study less, work more hours, have less interaction with faculty, and are less likely to join extra-curricular activities. In other words, middle-class students take part in more formal and informal social activities and have a greater sense of belonging to their universities than do working-class students.
Unfortunately, there have been and continue to be many barriers for students of lower socioeconomic status to get access. There are certain organizations and programs that have capitalized on the idea that attaining a college degree, specifically at a top tier university, is critical to social mobility. Organizations like QuestBridge , a non-profit focused on helping students of low socioeconomic status and minority background, have helped historically underrepresented groups attain a significant degree of social advantage.
Since the s, the United States higher education system has been increasingly viewed as a vehicle for social mobility and economic equality. As a result, there has been a clear struggle to try and open access to higher education for the wider population so that more individuals can benefit from this economic good. Programs like affirmative action have been at the forefront of this struggle, to help under-represented racial groups gain greater access to higher education. By increasing access to diverse and minority populations, greater social mobility is expected.
The report actually makes clear that higher education has been a source of increasing racial inequality in the United States. Through their research they show that overall access for minority enrollment has increased at a greater rate than enrollment for white students, but this growth is heavily concentrated in the poorest, and least selective colleges and universities. This difference is very important to note, because growing inequality between universities has an effect on graduation rates and time to complete a degree for students.
The study shows that more selective universities provide their students with better resources. Unsurprisingly, graduation rates are the highest in the more selective universities, where more resources are available to students inside and outside of the universities. They further demonstrate that persistence and completion rates at more selective universities are higher regardless of race or ethnicity.
The end product of this is the increased reproduction of educational inequalities across generations. This theory was advocated very heavily during the Supreme Court Case, Fisher v. University of Texas in It claims that affirmative action causes more harm than benefit, because it provides access opportunities to students that are not prepared well enough to succeed at more elite institutions.
This data shows that the opposite is true, in that many minority students are attending less selective universities, and are therefore not being given enough resources to succeed. Race can also play a role in which students enroll in college. A study found that African Americans are more likely to delay enrolling in college. This is despite programs like affirmative action that seek to provide underrepresented students with greater access to colleges.
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, African American students suffer the most in regards to under-representation at more selective universities. Race can play a part in a student's persistence rate in college: Another issue related to race is faculty representation at universities. According to data from the U. Department of Education, full-time faculty remain heavily white at universities across the country. In discussing student's access to education in the United States, one area of concentration that current research has focused on in the last half century is the differences that exist between students entry and completion rates based on gender.
While the largest gap of educational attainment between men and women is seen in the highest income group, women are attaining higher levels of education than men in every income group. This observation poses a unique and confusing problem: Bailey and Dynarski proposed that the observed educational gap by gender may be due to differing incentives to accumulate human capital.
Men and women may participate in what they term "segregated labor markets" and "asymmetric marriage markets," and perhaps, to make up for those perceived market differences, females are more motivated to obtain higher levels of education. The gap of educational attainment between men and women is starting at a young age and affecting students access to higher education later on in life. More specifically, the bulk of primary and secondary teachers are female and women run most single parent households.
The absence of a strong male role model affects males differently from females. When comparing graduation rates between men and women, in children born after , more white women were graduating from college than white men, which was a change from children born before this time. It is estimated that 65, undocumented immigrants graduate from high school each year. These graduates have lived in the United States for more than 5 years and most were often brought to the United States by their parents as young children.
Government with the question of what rights to give the undocumented immigrants after their graduation, particularly with access to higher education. Installing pathways to higher education and in-state tuition for undocumented students in the United States presents both opportunities and constraints in developing practices that promote social justice , equity , and equality. Those who are sympathetic to the challenges facing undocumented students may support opportunities to promote the potential of those who are deserving of incorporation and membership in U.
On the other hand, proponents of tighter borders and tougher immigration laws may view all undocumented people, including model, hardworking young people, as "illegals" or temporary workers and consider them to be drains on the resources of society. This puts educational administrators in precarious positions since they are professionals who are trained to promote and support students in their pursuit of knowledge and self-improvement. Therefore, many professionals are left with little choice but to search for individuals and resources already established within outlaw cultures. In , the United States passed a law banning states from offering residency benefits to undocumented immigrants that they didn't then also offer to every U.
This basically made it so that states could not offer in-state tuition to undocumented immigrants, even if they technically qualified based on residency status. States have argued the clarity of this law and many have enacted their own laws allowing in-state tuition to be given on the claims that it is based on high school attendance and not explicitly residency. The DREAM Act was introduced in and aims to give more access to higher education for undocumented immigrants by repealing the law law. It also aimed to set up pathways for students who obtain higher education to become legal residents.
The act has been introduced in many states and many different times, but has still not been passed. Critics of the act argue that it encourages more undocumented immigration, that schools will engage in grade inflation so that border-line students can take advantage of the act, and that a financial burden could be placed on taxpayers. Proponents argue the opposite, emphasizing that giving the undocumented immigrants an opportunity at higher education means they will be more self-sufficient in the future, contributing more to taxes and relying less on state resources.
They also claim that children should not be punished for the actions of their parents and that giving them this opportunity would encourage them to be contributing and law-abiding citizens. Whether this act would have positive effects on undocumented immigrants attending college is still hard to see since not many states have actually done it and the time span has not been enough for thorough research.
The UNLV study recommends key policy changes to support undocumented immigrants access to higher education. In general, practitioners need to weigh opportunities against constraints and consider the potential opportunities to promote social justice, equality, and equity in higher education access. Rather than considering undocumented students as "illegals" and restricting their access to legitimate educational pathways, it is recommended that, at the very least, those in positions of power adopt an outlaw cultural framework to support the strengths inherent within diversity as well as pursue avenues of social justice for undocumented students who are seeking to access higher education to improve their future and secure permanent membership in U.
They must also comprehend the significant changes in the current security environment and its implications for first responders and the extent to which the modern society depends on critical infrastructure and implications for first responders. This basically made it so that states could not offer in-state tuition to undocumented immigrants, even if they technically qualified based on residency status. The study also found that more women, practicing Christians, and Republicans were employed to teach at lower ranked schools such as two-year community colleges or medium-sized universities than would be expected from their professional accomplishments, measured objectively. There is nothing dramatic or unprecedented about the current climate which begs the question: The reason these factors were given greater consideration was that, according to McPherson and Schapiro, the information was readily available and it led to a more meaningful comparison across students than variables like high school GPA. On the other hand, a survey of sociology professors found that one quarter stated that they would be more likely to vote for hiring a declared Democrat and less likely to vote for hiring a declared Republican. Most predictions are that the warming will slow over the coming years great news in theory, terrible news if it means that many will mistakenly believe the problem has gone away before accelerating to catch up with the long-term forcing.
A slightly lower percentage of college-age Americans from rural areas go to college: A MOOC is a massive open online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the web. It became popular in — In addition to traditional course materials such as filmed lectures, readings, and problem sets , many MOOCs provide interactive user forums to support community interactions between students, professors, and teaching assistants.
He argues that they have passed their peak: Critics contend that tuition increases have outpaced inflation. Because schools are assured of receiving their fees no matter what happens to their students, they have felt free to raise their fees to very high levels, to accept students of inadequate academic ability, and to produce too many graduates in some fields of study.
Despite the vast expense and economic distortions that result from student aid, the proportion of graduates who come from poor backgrounds has actually declined since Wright predicted cost increases without matching increases in quality would continue until professors were encouraged to own colleges in private partnerships; he predicted that would not happen until barriers to entry are decreased and government education subsidies are paid directly to students instead of to colleges and universities.
Another issue is the rising cost of textbooks. Lower priced alternatives offered by Flat World Knowledge are now available but have yet to make a significant impact on overall textbook prices. One theory for the continual increase in tuition is that universities prioritize endowment growth over educational interests.
This means that the universities will usually seek to grow their endowments to sustain their level of activity well into the future. Arguments against this justification mainly focus on the idea that the intergenerational equity theory does not accurately reflect the behavior of institutions with large endowments. Peter Conti-Brown, for example, describes how many of the elite universities cut their budgets during the recession despite sitting atop multibillion-dollar endowments, which were theoretically supposed to act as cushions during such economic downturns.
Still, tuition increases may not be completely the responsibility of the higher education institutions. Instead, an article written by Archibald and Feldman suggests that tuition increases simply reflect the increasing costs of producing higher education. While the decision-making of college administrators does come into play, the argument is that there are more fundamental and economy-wide factors that result in cost increases.
A general economic trend is that costs in service industries grow more rapidly than in manufacturing industries, and increase in higher education costs is simply a reflection of this phenomenon. Some universities describe being caught in a dilemma where they are pressured to offer broader curricula and improve facilities to attract new students on one hand, but on the other hand these universities must raise tuition to compensate for state spending cuts and rising expenses. Annual undergraduate tuition varies widely from state to state, and many additional fees apply.
Listed tuition prices generally reflect the upper bound that a student may be charged for tuition. In many cases, the "list price" of tuition — that is, the tuition rate broadcast on a particular institution's marketing platforms — may turn out to be different from the actual or net tuition charged per student. A student that has applied for institution-based funding will know his or her net tuition upon receipt of a financial aid package.
Since tuition does not take into account other expenses such as the cost of living, books, supplies and other expenses, such additional amounts can cause the overall cost of college to exceed the tuition rate multiplied by the number of courses the student is planning to take. Private schools are typically much higher, although prices vary widely from "no-frills" private schools to highly specialized technical institutes.
While tuition is monitored to some degree in legislatures and is often publicly discussed, fees on the side are frequently overlooked in public opinion and regulatory policies. In addition to tuition, living expenses, books, supplies and fees, students also face a less-acknowledged opportunity cost in years of missed potential income. College costs are rising while state appropriations for aid are shrinking. This has led to debate over funding at both the state and local levels. To combat costs colleges have hired adjunct professors to teach.
There is some suspicion that student evaluation of adjuncts, along with doubts on the part of teachers about subsequent continued employment, can lead to grade inflation. Additionally, schools are increasingly using price discrimination as a strategy across different programs to increase revenue i. Yet the school is still fundamentally different from a for-profit business entity in that it is restricted by its school mission. For example, a school may charge particular types of students such as low-income or moderate-income students less tuition in order to help them.
Another example is merit-based aid, in which the school will grant high-achieving students money. Because of the decrease in public funding, public research universities have tried to compensate for those losses by increasing tuition revenue by enrolling more out of state students. In some states the increase has been significantly higher, particularly in higher ranking universities. In the University of California Los Angeles the enrollment went up from 7. In higher ranking universities the increases in out of state admissions has had a significant effect on admission of in state low income and underrepresented minority students.
Princeton sociologists Thomas Espenshade and Alexandria Walton Radford published a book-length study of admissions that found that an upper-middle-class white applicant was three times as likely to be admitted to an American college as a lower-class white with similar qualification.
Athletics have been increasingly subsidized by tuition. Fewer than one in eight of the Division 1 colleges actually netted more money than they spent on athletics between the years and At the few money-making schools, football and sometimes basketball sales support the school's other athletic programs. Athletes, on average, cost six times what it cost to educate the non-athlete.
As college costs have risen, so has the amount of money available to finance a college education. However, the proportion of gift aid and self-help funding has shifted: Pell Grants , which were created to offset the cost of college for low-income students, started funding more middle-class students, stretching the funds thinner for everyone.
During Clinton's presidency , funding for higher education was focused on creating tax benefits tied to attending college. These proposed policies put less emphasis on developing grants to allow students to attend college. Some have argued that this approach did not adequately provide aid to those students most in need of it. Furthermore, there was fear that tax deductions or credits would actually work to drive up tuition costs. The federal government also began funding fewer grant programs and more loan programs, leaving students with higher amounts of debt.
Policy changes in higher education funding raise questions about the impact on student performance and access to higher education. Many early studies focused on social integration and a person's individual attributes as the factors for degree completion. It has been found that providing need-based aid proved to increase degree completion in 48 states. There has also been a positive correlation between providing merit-based aid and degree completion.
Low-income families now have to pay more to attend college, making it harder for such populations to attain higher education. It is clear that at both private and public colleges and universities family income has a significant impact on need-based financial aid.
As colleges and universities compete for students, the demarcation between merit-based aid and need-based aid is less clear. While there has been a traditional distinction between need-based and merit-based funding, recent trends indicate that these two categories are more blurred than their labels would suggest. Specifically, research confirms that merit-based financial aid often takes into account student need and vice versa. Controversy has also risen regarding performance-based funding. This system has been criticized due to the complexity of the measurements as well as the resulting changed environment and goals of campuses.
Many have criticized performance-funding, noting an overemphasis of test scores without consideration of other possible measures. A report by Michael S. McPherson and Morton Owen Schapiro indicated that financial aid to students in the s held the strongest correlation with student SAT scores. The report was conducted in the interest of looking directly at the relationship between financial aid grants and various factors, with specific focus on the variables of family income level and SAT scores and minor focus on personal variables, such as race and gender. The reason these factors were given greater consideration was that, according to McPherson and Schapiro, the information was readily available and it led to a more meaningful comparison across students than variables like high school GPA.
The report also made clear that it ignored the distinctions that universities make between "need-based" and "merit-based" aid. McPherson and Schapiro argued, "Although it is commonplace to track the importance of merit as opposed to need-based aid based on the responses given by college and university administrators on survey forms, we have argued that the distinction between 'need-based' and 'non-need-based' student grants is a slippery one. Some low-income students have to work and study at the same time.
This may adversely impact their performance in school. Most discussions on how higher education funding is determined have focused on the economic and demographic influences; however, according to a study on the relationship between politics and state funding many political factors influence higher education funding. First, as the number of interest groups for higher education in a state grows, so does the amount of money given to higher education. Second, states with a more liberal political ideology give more funding to higher education. Third, governors with more control over the state budget tend to award less money to higher education.
This is attributed again to the fact that higher education funding is considered to be tradable with other programs. Fourth, a more professional state legislature correlates with more funding for higher education. Professional in here refers to a legislature that acts much as the U. Congress does in that members have many staff members and spend more time in session. Fifth, the more diverse a state population becomes, the less support there will be for higher education funding.
From to , there was rapid growth of for-profit schools. Government funding in and government deregulation in fueled a dramatic rise in for-profit college enrollment. Government oversight and scrutiny since as well as competition from non-profit and public education has led to a dramatic decrease in enrollment. At its peak, The University of Phoenix was the largest US for-profit college, with an enrollment of more than , students nationwide. Critics of for-profit colleges have pointed to the heavy dependence on federal loans and grants to students, the low student completion rate, and the inability of the majority of graduates to pay their student loans because they failed to secure high-paying jobs.
Visa mills are colleges with low standards that recruit foreigners. The amount of debt that students have after graduation has become an issue of concern, especially given the weak job market after Several studies and news reports have detailed the effects of student loan debt on reducing first time home buying and child bearing—and ultimately slowing down the US economy.
In , the U. Department of Education announced stricter eligibility rules for federal financing of loans to student at for-profit schools , which were experiencing higher default rates. The debtors average age is Forty percent of the debt is owed by people 40 or older. In , a poll by Lake Research Partners and Chesapeake Beach Consulting found "an overwhelming concern among voters regarding the level of student debt.
Grade inflation has been a pernicious aspect of American college life since the s. Between and , GPAs sharply increased so that the most common letter grade went from a long-standing C to a B.