The Turks Today: Turkey After Ataturk

Kemal Atatürk

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All the benefits of Digital plus: Read everything we publish digitally plus the FT Newspaper delivered to your door. All the benefits of Premium plus: Learn more and compare subscriptions. Close Financial Times International Edition. The best, the truest order is the order of civilization. To be a man it is enough to carry out the requirements of civilization. The leaders of dervish orders will understand the truth of my words, and will themselves close down their lodges [tekke] and admit that their disciplines have grown up.

On 2 September, the government issued a decree closing down all Sufi orders and the tekkes. Mustafa Kemal ordered their dervish lodges to be converted to museums, such as Mevlana Museum in Konya. The institutional expression of Sufism became illegal in Turkey; a politically neutral form of Sufism, functioning as social associations, was permitted to exist. The abolition of the caliphate and other cultural reforms were met with fierce opposition. The conservative elements were not happy and they launched attacks on the Kemalist reformists.

Sheikh Said was a wealthy Kurdish [ citation needed ] tribal chief of a local Naqshbandi order. He emphasized the issue of religion; he not only opposed the abolition of the Caliphate, but also the adoption of civil codes based on Western models, the closure of religious orders, the ban on polygamy, and the new obligatory civil marriage.

Sheikh stirred up his followers against the policies of the government, which he considered anti-Islamic. They urged immediate military action to prevent its spread. It gave the government exceptional powers and included the authority to shut down subversive groups, but was repealed on 4 March There were also parliamentarians in the GNA who were not happy with these changes [ who? So many members were denounced as opposition sympathizers at a private meeting of the Republican People's Party CHP that Mustafa Kemal expressed his fear of being among the minority in his own party.

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On 8 November, the motion was rejected by votes to 18, and 41 votes were absent. After the majority of the CHP chose him [99] Mustafa Kemal said, "the Turkish nation is firmly determined to advance fearlessly on the path of the republic, civilization and progress". On 17 November , the breakaway group established the Progressive Republican Party PRP with 29 deputies and the first multi-party system began.

The PRP's economic program suggested liberalism, in contrast to the state socialism of CHP, and its social program was based on conservatism in contrast to the modernism of CHP. Leaders of the party strongly supported the Kemalist revolution in principle, but had different opinions on the cultural revolution and the principle of secularism. The only legal opposition became a home for all kinds of differing views.

It originated with a former deputy who had opposed the abolition of the Caliphate. Investigation shifted from an inquiry into the planners to an investigation ostensibly to uncover subversive activities but in truth used to undermine those disagreeing with Mustafa Kemal's cultural revolution. The sweeping investigation brought a number of political activists before the tribunal, including Karabekir, the leader of PRP.

The PRP was dissolved following the outcomes of the trial. The pattern of organized opposition, however, was broken. Mustafa Kemal's saying, "My mortal body will turn into dust, but the Republic of Turkey will last forever," was regarded as a will after the assassination attempt. In the years following , Mustafa Kemal introduced a radical departure from previous reformations established by the Ottoman Empire.

We must liberate our concepts of justice, our laws and our legal institutions from the bonds which, even though they are incompatible with the needs of our century, still hold a tight grip on us. On 1 March , the Turkish penal code was passed. It was modelled after the Italian Penal Code. On 4 October , Islamic courts were closed. Ottoman practice discouraged social interaction between men and women in keeping with Islamic practice of sex segregation. Mustafa Kemal began developing social reforms very early, as was evident in his personal journal.

He and his staff discussed issues like abolishing the veiling of women and the integration of women into the outside world. The clue on how he was planning to tackle the issue was stated in his journal in November The social change can come by 1 educating capable mothers who are knowledgeable about life; 2 giving freedom to women; 3 a man can change his morals, thoughts, and feelings by leading a common life with a woman; as there is an inborn tendency towards the attraction of mutual affection. Mustafa Kemal needed a new civil code to establish his second major step of giving freedom to women.

The first part was the education of girls and was established with the unification of education. On 4 October , the new Turkish civil code passed. It was modelled after the Swiss Civil Code. Under the new code, women gained equality with men in such matters as inheritance and divorce. Mustafa Kemal did not consider gender a factor in social organization. According to his view, society marched towards its goal with men and women united. He believed that it was scientifically impossible for him to achieve progress and to become civilized if the gender separation continued as in Ottoman times.

Win for us the battle of education and you will do yet more for your country than we have been able to do. It is to you that I appeal. If henceforward the women do not share in the social life of the nation, we shall never attain to our full development. We shall remain irremediably backward, incapable of treating on equal terms with the civilizations of the West.

The museum highlighted sculpture, which was little practised in Turkey owing to the Islamic tradition of avoiding idolatry. Mustafa Kemal believed that "culture is the foundation of the Turkish Republic," [] and described modern Turkey's ideological thrust as "a creation of patriotism blended with a lofty humanist ideal. The pre-Islamic culture of the Turks became the subject of extensive research, and particular emphasis was laid upon Turkish culture widespread before the Seljuk and Ottoman civilizations.

He also stressed the folk arts of the countryside as a wellspring of Turkish creativity. In the spring of , Mustafa Kemal met in Ankara with several linguists and professors from all over Turkey where he unveiled to them a plan of his to implement a new alphabet for the written Turkish language based on a modified Latin alphabet. The new Turkish alphabet would serve as a replacement for the old Arabic script and as a solution to the literacy problem in Turkey, as the Arabic script does not feature any vowels while the Turkish language has eight.

When he asked them at how long it would take, in their professional opinion, to implement the new alphabet into the Turkish language, most of the professors and linguists said between three and five years. Mustafa Kemal was said to have scoffed and openly stated, "we shall do it in three to five months". Over the next several months, Mustafa Kemal pressed for the introduction of the new Turkish alphabet as well as made public announcements to the upcoming overhaul of the new alphabet.

On 1 November he introduced the new Turkish alphabet and abolished the use of Arabic script. Dewey noted to Mustafa Kemal that learning how to read and write in Turkish with the Arabic script took roughly three years with rather strenuous methods at the elementary level.

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All but about of those tried were found guilty, and fifteen death sentences were pronounced. Public sphere and Discourse. Major Sides in Political reforms. Commander of the Seventh Army July — October He said, "our schools [curriculum] should aim to provide opportunities for all pupils to learn and to achieve.

Mustafa Kemal himself travelled the countryside in order to teach citizens the new alphabet. After vigorous campaigns, the literacy rate increased from Mustafa Kemal promoted modern teaching methods at the primary education level, and Dewey took a place of honour. Turkish women were taught not only child care, dress-making and household management, but also skills needed to join the economy outside the home.

Turkish education became a state-supervised system, which was designed to create a skill base for the social and economic progress of the country. Mustafa Kemal generated media attention to propagate modern education during this period. He instigated official education meetings called "Science Boards" and "Education Summits. He said, "our schools [curriculum] should aim to provide opportunities for all pupils to learn and to achieve. The first one was Turkish: The second, Geometry , was a text for high schools.

On 11 August , Mustafa Kemal decided to try a multiparty movement once again and asked Ali Fethi Okyar to establish a new party. He insisted on the protection of secular reforms. The brand-new Liberal Republican Party succeeded all around the country. On 23 December , a chain of violent incidents occurred, starting with the rebellion of Islamic fundamentalists in Menemen , a small town in the Aegean region. This so-called Menemen Incident was considered a serious threat against secular reforms.

In November , Ali Fethi Okyar dissolved his own party. A more lasting multi-party period of the Republic of Turkey began in There are arguments that Mustafa Kemal's single party rule did not promote direct democracy. The reason experiments with pluralism failed during this period was that not all groups in the country had agreed to a minimal consensus regarding shared values mainly secularism and shared rules for conflict resolution. In response to such criticisms, Mustafa Kemal's biographer Andrew Mango said: More could not have been expected in his lifetime.

In one of his many speeches about the importance of democracy, Mustafa Kemal said in Republic means the democratic administration of the state. We founded the Republic, reaching its tenth year.

It should enforce all the requirements of democracy as the time comes. The Turkish Historical Society Turkish: Mustafa Kemal dealt with the translation of scientific terminology into Turkish. Any attempt to "cleanse" the Turkish language of foreign influence without modelling the integral structure of the language was inherently wrong to him. He personally oversaw the development of the Sun Language Theory Turkish: His interest started with the works by the French scientist Hilaire de Barenton titled L'Origine des Langues, des Religions et des Peuples , which postulates that all languages originated from hieroglyphs and cuneiform used by Sumerians, [] and the paper of Austrian linguist Dr.

Beginning in , several hundred " People's Houses " Turkish: Many museums opened, architecture began to follow modern trends, and classical Western music , opera, and ballet, as well as the theatre, also took greater hold. Book and magazine publications increased as well, and the film industry began to grow.

In , a Qur'an in the Turkish language was read before a live audience and broadcast over the radio. There was a rare polyglot Qu'ran written in Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Latin in the tetrapla style, prepared by savant Andrea Acolutho of Bernstadt and printed at Berlin in Several renderings of the Qur'an in the Turkish language were read in front of the public. This incident impelled many leading Muslim modernists to call upon the Turkish Parliament to sponsor a Qur'an translation of suitable quality.

Mustafa Kemal's objective was to make the Qu'ran accessible to modern people, and therefore to translate it into modern languages. It is used as his official signature on Turkish government buildings to this day. On 5 December , Turkey moved to grant full political rights to women, before several other European nations. The equal rights of women in marriage had already been established in the earlier Turkish civil code. There is no logical explanation for the political disenfranchisement of women. Any hesitation and negative mentality on this subject is nothing more than a fading social phenomenon of the past.

Women must have the right to vote and to be elected; because democracy dictates that, because there are interests that women must defend, and because there are social duties that women must perform. The elections yielded 18 female MPs out of a total of representatives, compared to nine out of members of the British House of Commons and six out of in the US House of Representatives inaugurated that year. When the modern Republic of Turkey was founded in , nationalism and secularism were two of the founding principles. Ulus devlet from the Turkish remnants of the Ottoman Empire.

Kemalist ideology defines the "Turkish People" as "those who protect and promote the moral, spiritual, cultural and humanistic values of the Turkish Nation. Foreign issues were resolved by peaceful methods during his presidency. The "Issue of Mosul", a dispute with the United Kingdom over control of Mosul Province , was one of the first foreign affairs-related controversies of the new Republic. During the Mesopotamian campaign , Lieutenant General William Marshall followed the British War Office's instruction that "every effort was to be made to score as heavily as possible on the Tigris before the whistle blew", capturing Mosul three days after the signature of the Armistice of Mudros 30 October The British were in a precarious situation with the Issue of Mosul, and were adopting almost equally desperate measures to protect their interests.

In , Mustafa Kemal tried to persuade the GNA that accepting the arbitration of the League of Nations at the Treaty of Lausanne over Mosul did not mean relinquishing Mosul, but rather waiting for a time when Turkey might be stronger. The artificially drawn border had an unsettling effect on the population on both sides. Later, it was claimed that Turkey began where oil ends, as the border was drawn by the British geophysicists based on the oil reserves. On 23 January , Lord Curzon argued that the existence of oil was no more than hypothetical.

Mosul and Kurds were the key. While three inspectors from the League of Nations Committee were sent to the region to oversee the situation in , the Sheikh Said rebellion , beginning in and escalating until , set out to establish a new government positioned to cut Turkey's link to Mesopotamia. The relationship between the rebels and Britain was questioned. British assistance was sought after the rebels realised that the rebellion, or its expected outcome, could not stand by itself. In , the League of Nations formed a three-member committee to study the case while the Sheikh Said Rebellion was on the rise.

Partly because of the continuing uncertainties along the northern frontier present-day northern Iraq , the committee recommended that the region should be connected to Iraq with the condition that the UK would hold the British Mandate of Mesopotamia. By the end of March , the necessary troop movements were completed, and the whole area of the Sheikh Said rebellion was encircled.

Britain, Iraq and Kemal made a treaty on 5 June , which mostly followed the decisions of the League Council. In , Kemal faced growing opposition to his reform policies, a continuing precarious economic situation, and a defeat in the Mosul issue. A large section of the Kurdish population and the Iraqi Turkmen were left on the other side of the border.

In , the population was largely illiterate and disparate. Turkey was in ruins, reconstruction was difficult, poverty was everywhere and people were in pain, which fed separatist violence. In his message to Vladimir Lenin , the Bolshevik leader and head of the Russian SFSR 's government, dated 26 April , Kemal promised to coordinate his military operations with the Bolsheviks' "fight against imperialist governments" and requested 5 million lira in gold as well as armaments "as first aid" to his forces.

The Treaty of Moscow, followed by the identical Treaty of Kars in October the same year, gave Turkey a favourable settlement of its north-eastern frontier at the expense of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic , then nominally an independent state. Relations between the two countries were friendly, but were based on the fact that they were fighting against a common enemy: Britain and the West. Social conditions, religion, and national traditions of our country confirm the opinion that Russian Communism is not applicable in Turkey.

As in past our Republican Government regards genuine and extensive good relations with Soviet Russia as the keystone of our foreign policy. After the Turks, on 16 December , withdrew their delegation from Geneva , thus leaving the League of Nations Council to grant a mandate for the Mosul region to Britain without their consent, Kemal countered [] by concluding a non-aggression pact with the USSR on 17 December.

In , the Soviet War minister Kliment Voroshilov visited Turkey and attended the tenth year celebrations of the Republic. During the second half of the s, Mustafa Kemal tried to establish a closer relationship with Britain and other major western powers, which caused displeasure on the part of the Soviets. The second edition of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia Volume 20, was unequivocally critical of Kemal's policies in the last years of his rule, calling his domestic policies "anti-popular" and his foreign course as aimed at rapprochement with the "imperialist powers.

The post-war leader of Greece, Eleftherios Venizelos , was also determined to establish normal relations between the two states. The war had devastated Western Anatolia , and the financial burden of Ottoman Muslim refugees from Greece blocked rapprochement. Venizelos moved forward with the agreement despite accusations of conceding too much on the issues of the naval armaments, and the properties of the Ottoman Greeks from Turkey according to the Treaty of Lausanne.

In spite of Turkish animosity against the Greeks, Kemal showed acute sensitivity to even the slightest allusion to these tensions; at one point, he ordered the removal of a painting showing a Turkish soldier plunging his bayonet to a Greek soldier by stating, "What a revolting scene!

Ultimately, many Greeks consider the reconciliation with Turkey among the greatest foreign policy achievements of Venizelos' final term as Prime Minister.

Atatürk: The Early Years

The day after Atatürk's death, the Grand National Assembly elected his chief and two additional CHP deputies calling for changes in Turkish law to assure the . Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, .. After a series of battles during the Greco-Turkish war, the Greek army advanced as far as the . Today, our most important and most productive task is the national education [unification and modernization] affairs.

Greece renounced all its claims over Turkish territory and the two sides concluded an agreement on 30 April On 25 October, Venizelos visited Turkey, and signed a treaty of friendship. Greece, which has the highest estimation of the renowned leader, heroic soldier, and enlightened creator of Turkey. He developed ties of friendship between the two nations which it would be unthinkable to dissolve. Greece will guard its fervent memories of this great man, who determined an unalterable future path for the noble Turkish nation.

From , Afghanistan was in the midst of a reformation period under Amanullah Khan. He encouraged Amanullah Khan in social and political reform but urged that reforms should build upon the basis of a strong government. During the late s, Anglo-Afghan relations soured over British fears of an Afghan-Soviet friendship. Mustafa Kemal supported Afghanistan's integration into international organizations. In , Afghanistan's relations with the international community gained a huge boost when it joined the League of Nations. Mahmud Tarzi received Mustafa Kemal's personal support until he died on 22 November in Istanbul.

Mustafa Kemal and Reza Shah had a common approach regarding British imperialism and its influence in their region, creating a slow but continuous rapprochement between Ankara and Tehran. Both governments sent diplomatic missions and messages of friendship to each other during the Turkish War of Independence. Iran's Shi'a clergy did not accept Kemal's position. Reza Shah visited him in In , the draft of what would become the Treaty of Saadabad was paragraphed in Geneva, but the signing of it was delayed because of the border dispute between Iran and Iraq. Iran challenged the validity of both the Treaty of Erzerum and the Constantinople Protocol in The signatories undertook to preserve their common frontiers, to consult together in all matters of common interest and to commit no aggression against one another's territory.

The treaty united the Afghan king's call for greater Oriental-Middle Eastern cooperation, Reza Shah's goal in securing relations with Turkey that would help Iran free itself from Soviet and British influence, and Mustafa Kemal's foreign policy of securing stability in the region. The immediate outcome was to deter Mussolini from adventures in the region. The Lausanne Straits Agreement stated that the Dardanelles should remain open to all commercial vessels: The Lausanne Straits Agreement stated that the waterway was to be demilitarized, and its management left to the Straits Commission.

The demilitarized zone heavily restricted Turkey's domination and sovereignty over the Straits. The defence of Constantinople was impossible without having the sovereignty over the water that passed through it. In March , Hitler's reoccupation of the Rhineland gave Mustafa Kemal the opportunity to resume full control over the Straits. We shall certainly achieve it".

However, the signatories agreed to join the conference, since unlimited military passage had become unfavourable to Turkey with the changes in world politics. Mustafa Kemal demanded that the members of the Turkish Foreign Office devise a solution that would transfer full control over the waterway to Turkey.

It became the primary instrument governing the passage of commercial and war vessels through the Dardanelles Strait. It went into effect on 9 November , and is still valid today. Until the early s, Turkey followed a modern neutral foreign policy with the West by developing joint friendship and neutrality agreements. These bilateral agreements were aligned with Mustafa Kemal's worldview. By the end of , Turkey had signed fifteen joint agreements with Western states. In the early s, changes and developments in world politics required Turkey to make multilateral agreements to improve its security.

Mustafa Kemal strongly believed that a close cooperation between the Balkan states based on the principle of equality would have an important effect on European politics. These states had been ruled by the Ottoman Empire for centuries, and had formed a powerful force. While the origins of the Balkan agreement may date back as far as , the Balkan Pact came to being in the mids.

Several important developments in the Balkan Peninsula and in Europe helped the original idea to materialize, such as improvements in the Turkish-Greek alliance and the rapprochement between Bulgaria and Yugoslavia. The most important factor in driving Turkish foreign policy from the mids onwards was the fear of Italy. Benito Mussolini had frequently proclaimed his intention to make the entire Mediterranean Mare Nostrum. Both the Turks and the various Balkan states felt threatened by Italian ambitions.

This mutual-defence agreement intended to guarantee the signatories' territorial integrity and political independence against attack by another Balkan state such as Bulgaria or Albania. It countered the increasingly aggressive foreign policy of fascist Italy and the effect of a potential Bulgarian alignment with Nazi Germany.

Mustafa Kemal thought of the Balkan Pact as a medium of balance in the relations with the European countries. The Balkan Pact provided for regular military and diplomatic consultations. It was regarded as a significant step forward in consolidating the free world's position in southeast Europe, although it contained no specific military commitments. The borders of the allies in the Balkan Pact are a single border. Those who covet this border will encounter the burning beams of the sun.

I recommend avoiding this. The forces that defend our borders are a single and inseparable force. The unanimously ratified Balkan pact became a reality on 18 May and lasted until What he wanted to prevent with the Balkan Pact was realized by Bulgaria's attempt to put the Dobruja issue into the agenda after a series of international events ending with the Italian invasion of Albania on 7 April These conflicts spread rapidly, triggering World War II.

The risks of this policy change put the two men at odds. Hatay was based on the old administrative unit of the Ottoman Empire called the Sanjak of Alexandretta. On behalf of the League of Nations, the representatives of France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Belgium and Turkey prepared a constitution for Hatay, which established it as an autonomous sanjak within Syria. Despite some inter-ethnic violence, in the midst of an election was conducted by the local legislative assembly. Mustafa Kemal instigated economic policies to develop small and large scale businesses, but also to create social strata industrial bourgeoisie along with the peasantry of Anatolia that were virtually non-existent during the Ottoman Empire.

The primary problem faced by the politics of his period was the lag in the development of political institutions and social classes which would steer such social and economic changes. The initial choices of Mustafa Kemal's economic policies reflected the realities of his period. After World War I, due to the lack of any real potential investors to open private sector factories and develop industrial production, Kemal established many state-owned factories for agriculture, machinery, and textile industries.

Resources were channeled away from Constantinople, a trading port with international foreign enterprises, in favor of other, less developed cities, in order to establish a more balanced development throughout the country. For Mustafa Kemal, as for his supporters, tobacco remained wedded to his policy in the pursuit of economic independence. Turkish tobacco was an important industrial crop, while its cultivation and manufacture had been French monopolies under capitulations of the Ottoman Empire.

The tobacco and cigarette trade was controlled by two French companies: Regie, as part of the Council of the Public Debt, had control over production, storing, and distribution including export with an unchallenged price control. Consequently, Turkish farmers were dependent on the company for their livelihood. The control of tobacco was the biggest achievement of the Kemalist political machinery's " nationalization " of the economy for a country that did not produce oil.

They accompanied this achievement with the development of the cotton industry, which peaked during the early s. Cotton was the second biggest industrial crop in Turkey at the time. The bank's creation was a response to the growing need for a truly national establishment and the birth of a banking system which was capable of backing up economic activities, managing funds accumulated as a result of policies providing savings incentives, and, where necessary, extending resources which could trigger industrial impetus.

In , Turkish State Railways was established. Because Mustafa Kemal considered the development of a national rail network as another important step in industrialization, it was given high priority. This institution developed an extensive railway network in a very short time. In , Kemal also ordered the integration of road construction goals into development plans. The national group [ clarification needed ] , which had Mustafa Kemal as the leader, developed many projects within the first decade of the republic. However, the Turkish economy was still largely agrarian, with primitive tools and methods; roads and transportation facilities were far from sufficient and management of the economy was inefficient.

The Great Depression brought many changes to this picture. The young republic, like the rest of the world, found itself in a deep economic crisis during the Great Depression. Mustafa Kemal reacted to conditions of this period by moving toward integrated economic policies, and establishing a central bank to control exchange rates.

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However, Turkey could not finance essential imports; its currency was shunned and zealous revenue officials seized the meagre possessions of peasants who could not pay their taxes. In , Mustafa Kemal signed a treaty that resulted in the restructuring of the nation's debt with the Ottoman Public Debt Administration. He did not fault the Ottoman debt. He had to deal with the turbulent economic issues of the Great Depression along with the payment of the high debt known as the Ottoman public debt. Until the early s, Turkish private business could not acquire exchange credits.

It was impossible to integrate the Turkish economy without a solution to this problem. This increased the credibility of the new Republic. The bank's primary purpose was to have control over the exchange rate, and Ottoman Bank 's role during its initial years as a central bank was phased out. From the political economy perspective, Mustafa Kemal had to face the same problems which all countries faced: The establishment of a new party with a different economic perspective was needed; he asked Ali Fethi Okyar to fulfil.

The Liberal Republican Party August came out with a liberal program and proposed that state monopolies should be ended, foreign capital should be attracted, and that state investment should be curtailed. The first — and second five-year economic plans were performed under the supervision of Mustafa Kemal. The first five-year economic plan promoted consumer substitution industries. However, these economic plans changed drastically with the death of Kemal and the rise of World War II.

Subsequent governments took measures that harmed the economic productivity of Turkey in various ways. He realized the important role of aviation. In his words, "the future lies in the skies". Instead of the traditional raffle prizes, this new lottery paid money prizes. Most of the lottery income was used to establish a new factory and fund aviation projects.

Reformist general

Mustafa Kemal did not live to see the flight of the first Turkish military aircraft built at that factory. In , liberal economist Celal Bayar became the Minister of Economy at Mustafa Kemal's request and served until Textile, sugar, paper and steel factories financed by a loan from Britain were the private sectors of the period. Besides these government owned power plants, banks, and insurance companies were established. In , the first Turkish cotton print factory "Nazilli Calico print factory" opened.

Cotton planting was promoted to furnish raw material for future factory settlements, part of the industrialization process. Integrated economic policies reached their peak with the signing of the Treaty with Britain and France. On 25 January , Prime Minister Bayar resigned. Mustafa Kemal supported the establishment of the automobile industry. He wanted it to become a center in the region.

The motto of the Turkish automobile association was: These signs of sound economic policies were marked by the first-ever emergence of local banks. However, the gap between Mustafa Kemal's goals and the achievements of the socio-political structure of the country was not closed. Mustafa Kemal's name is associated with four women: Fikriye grew passionately attached to Mustafa Kemal; the full extent of his feelings for her is unclear but it is certain that they became very close after Fikriye divorced her Egyptian husband and returned to Istanbul.

Latife fell in love with Mustafa Kemal; again the extent to which this was reciprocated is unknown, but he was certainly impressed by Latife's intellect: On 29 January , they were married. According to official accounts, she shot herself with a pistol Mustafa Kemal had given her as a present; however, it was rumoured that she was murdered. In early , while he was on a trip to Yalova , he suffered from a serious illness. He went to Istanbul for treatment, where he was diagnosed with cirrhosis of the liver. During his stay in Istanbul, he made an effort to keep up with his regular lifestyle for a while.

The remainder of this yearly interest was willed to the Turkish Language Association and the Turkish Historical Society. His face and name are seen and heard everywhere in Turkey; his portrait can be seen in public buildings, in schools, on all Turkish lira banknotes, and in the homes of many Turkish families. A government website was created to denounce the websites that violate this law. In , YouTube, Geocities , and several blogger webpages were blocked by a Turkish court due to the violation of this law.

In the last week of October , a German company, following a request from the Turkish Internet Board, exploited YouTube automatic copyright-enforcement mechanism to take down the videos. On 30 October, shortly after the removal, a court lifted the ban. But a few days later, Google concluded that the videos did not infringe copyright and restored them on YouTube. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

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Why Ataturk's legacy is debated 80 years after his death

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