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The optimum points are also searched for maximizing the net work of the cycle in both energy and exergy methods. The results show that the optimum boiler pressures that maximize the network are identical based on both energy and exergy approaches and for both ideal and actual operating models in simple steam and reheat steam cycles. The optimum boiler pressures that maximize the cycle efficiency are about the same based on both energy and exergy approaches when ideal operations are considered in simple and reheat steam cycles. The optimum points differ when actual operations are considered for these cycles.
The optimum pressure ratios that maximize the network are identical based on both energy and exergy approaches but different depending on the selection of an ideal or actual model in simple and regenerative gas-turbine cycles, and in combined cycle. No agreement with respect to the optimum pressure ratios that maximize the cycle efficiency is observed for all types of gas-turbine cycles including the combined cycle. Skip to main content.
Annex 49 [ 5 Annex Energy conservation in buildings and community systems-Low exergy systems for high-performance buildings and communities , http: District energy is a technology which can use renewable energy and waste heat as a source of energy. Using low-temperature heat from renewable energy sources, such as solar and geothermal energy, as well as industrial waste heat, in district heating has proven to be attractive [ 6 Bloomquist, R.
Geoth , , 32 , Geothermal district heating applications in Turkey: A case study of Izmir-Balcova. Rezaie and Rosen [ 11 Rezaie, B. District heating and cooling: Review of technology and potential enhancements. Energy , , 93 , Review of district heating and cooling systems for a sustainable future.
Efficiency can be improved by using energy saving equipment [ 13 Patil, A. Recycling industrial waste heat for sustainable district heating: According to the U.
Department of Energy [ 15 Cogeneration or combined heat and power. The role of district heating in future renewable energy systems. Energ , , 32 , An example of integrating a DE system with renewable energy is the use of solar collectors consisting of vacuum tubes to generate heat for DE; this technology is popular in Europe and helps reduce GHG emissions. Other solar thermal collectors can also be used to convert solar energy to heat for DE applications.
Many investigations of solar collectors and their applications have been conducted in recent years [ 17 Li, Y. Thermodynamic multi-objective optimization of a solar-dish Brayton system based on maximum power output, thermal efficiency and ecological performance.
Energy , , 95 , DE systems have been used in Europe since the 14 th century, with one geothermal district heating system in continuous operation in France Chaudes-Aigues thermal station since that time [ 18 Lemale, J. Economic assessment of rural district heating by bio-steam supplied by a paper mill in Canada.
Northern European countries are the main users of district energy systems. For instance, Sweden has installed a TWh district heating system that supplied more than half of the heating capacity of the country in [ 20 Gebremedhin, A. The role of a paper mill in a merged district heating system.
Integrating renewable sources of energy into an existing combined heat and power system. Energ , , 31 , Thermodynamic analysis and performance assessment of an integrated heat pump system for district heating applications. Andrepont [ 23 Andrepont, J. Maximize district energy value by leveraging technology options. District Energy , , 92 4 , Role of thermal energy storage in district energy systems.
Kharseh and Nordell [ 25 Kharseh, M. Sustainable heating and cooling systems for agriculture. TES can enhance the performance of DE systems significantly. An integrated model for designing a solar community heating system with borehole thermal storage. Deep borehole heat exchangers: A common approach to address concerns regarding CO 2 and other harmful emissions is to reduce these emissions, and a common approach is to use energy resources more efficiently.
Exergy analysis can facilitate this approach, as it permits investigations into the quality of energy and often suggests modifications to improve energy systems. Many applications of exergy analysis have been reported [ 28 Jiaqiang, E. Effects of inlet pressure on wall temperature and exergy efficiency of the micro-cylindrical combustor with a step.
Energy , , , Here, a case study is used to assess thermodynamically the role of solar energy and TES in a DE system. The case study considered is the Friedrichshafen DE system in Germany. Utilizing solar energy allows the DE system to use significantly less fossil fuel than would otherwise be the case.
Seasonal TES, which normally requires significant thermal insulation to adequately reduce thermal losses, is used in the DE system. Originally, the Friedrichshafen DE system used only natural gas boilers. When a second residential area was added to the user base, solar thermal flat panels were added to provide energy for the entire thermal network. Seasonal stratified thermal energy storage exergy analysis. Exergy assessment of the use of thermal storage in a district energy system: Case study seasonal stratified thermal energy storage exergy analysis.
Here, some results from latter studies on Friedrichshafen TES are used to perform an exergy analysis on the Friedrichshafen DE, with the objective of identifying for the Friedrichshafen DE the benefits of using TES and renewable energy. In this study, we apply energy and exergy analyses to the Friedrichshafen DE system and its various possible operation modes during a year, and determine energy and exergy efficiencies for the system during the different operating modes. A simplified model is developed for a DE system which utilizes solar thermal energy and TES which is representative of the Friedrichshafen DE system and which facilitates thermodynamic analysis Fig.
In this system solar collectors and a fossil fuel heater boiler, furnace, or heater provide energy for the DE system. During some periods, the solar collectors provide more thermal energy more than the demand and the excess energy is stored in the TES. When solar collectors cannot provide sufficient solar energy, the TES releases stored energy to the DE system. Arrows show the direction of the energy via heated fluid.
Each mode is explained with energy movement direction in the following sections. Exergy analysis is used to assess efficiencies and losses for energy systems.
It permits investigations into the quality of energy and often suggests modifications to improve energy systems and reduce environmental impact [ 31 Rosen, M. Exergoeconomic analysis of power plants operating on various fuels. Sci , , 23 , Thermodynamic analysis of reheat cycle steam power plants. Enviro-exergy sustainability analysis of boiler evolution in district energy system. Also, Rezaie et al.
Exergy analysis of thermal energy storage in a district energy application. Energy , , 74 , An energy balance for a general thermal system can be expressed as [ 37 Dincer, I. Energy, environment and sustainable development. Energy and exergy balances are written for the solar assisted DE system in Fig.
The DE system, which is assisted by solar thermal energy and coupled with a TES, has three main operating modes, each of which is described separately in this section:. It should be explained that there is another mode which solar collectors generates energy more than the DE system demand. In this mode the excess heat stores into the TES system.
This mode is exactly storage stage of the TES. This stage was calculated already in general [ 29 Rezaie, B. In this mode, just solar collectors and the TES are involve, the thermal network is out of this performance and that is the reason this mode is not considered as Mode 4 for the Friedrichshafen DE system.
In operating Mode 1 Fig. The solar panels and the TES do not operate.
Circulating media flows to the thermal network where it transfers heat to users, and returns at a lower temperature to the boilers. The temperature at the inlet to the boilers is almost the same as that of the returned circulating media from the thermal network.
Energy losses for pumps, valves, splitters and pipes are small so they are neglected throughout. Mode 1 occurs when the TES is discharged and the available solar energy is either insufficient or unavailable to satisfy the DE system demand. In the thermodynamic analysis, each component is considered within a control volume for all modes. Applying equations 1 and 2 to the Mode 1 operating period, Q net1 can be expressed as:. An exergy analysis of the solar assisted DE system for operating Mode 1 is carried out, using Figs.
The latter shows the circulating media flows in the DE thermal network.