Levels of SLECs were consistently low at 3 weeks post-challenge, suggesting that terminally differentiated SLECs fluctuate during response to challenge. It appears that MPEC and SLEC lymphocytes play a greater role in the vaccine-like, recall response to challenge than they do in response to initial tumor initiation. Additionally, in contrast to blood, SLE cells were essentially absent or at relatively low, variable levels in the spleen and liver after challenge. MPECs were relatively elevated in the spleen and low in the liver before and after treatment.
SLECs were very low in the spleen and variable in the liver before and after treatment. Isolated lymphocytes were incubated with Cell Tracker Violet-labeled N1-S1 cells, which were analyzed for active caspases and Annexin-V binding as apoptosis markers 24 h later Figure N1-S1 cell percentage for active caspases red bars and caspases plus Annexin-V blue bars are indicated on the Y-axis when lymphocytes to N1-S1 ratios were 5: The immune profile in the post-challenge liver looks very different from the NK profile after initial NPS treatments Figure 6.
These phenotypic characteristics were also present in spleen, except at lower levels. Three weeks later, N1-S1 tumor cells had not formed tumors. In contrast, H4IIE cells induced tumor cell growth not as a defined tumor mass like that observed for N1-S1 tumors, but as tumor cells infiltrating into, but distinctly different from, normal liver parenchyma. To determine the longevity of the NPS post-ablation vaccine-like effect in rats with orthotopic N1-S1 HCC [ 21 ], a study with 6 rats was carried out over 11 4 rats to 15 2 rats months from tumor initiation to study end see materials and methods.
Four rats were challenged at 8 weeks and two others at 14 and 19 weeks after treatment. None of these rats had developed tumors.
These rats were then boosted twice two months later, and then orthotopically challenged 6—7 months after booster injection. None of these rats established tumors. The vaccine-like effect and granzyme B expression in the NPS treated TME [ 21 ] suggested an immune response, as demonstrated in this study. Two different abscopal models were analyzed in the rat N1-S1 model.
When one-week-old orthotopic tumors in the medial lobe This indicates that when a second tumor has escaped the primary site and is seeded as in a micrometastasis at a distant site, NPS treatment of the primary tumor can prevent growth of the distant second tumor. When a primary tumor in the medial lobe Thus, NPS initiates an immune response from a primary tumor treatment that is sufficient to prevent the growth of a distant tumor while it is initiating, but not once the tumor is established. NPS treatment of primary tumors ablates those tumors, resolves the immunosuppressive TME and initiates an immune response; however, that immune response cannot resolve a tumor that has already established an immunosuppressive TME.
The studies presented here provide a general overview of how the innate and adaptive immune system in rats with orthotopic N1-S1 HCC tumors respond before and after NPS treatment, and how NPS induces a vaccine-like effect that prevents recurrence when orthotopically re-challenged with N1-S1 HCC cells. Immune responses are of interest because NPS treatment itself essentially vaccinates animals in vivo. In a previous study, 21 of 21 rats were protected [ 21 ], and scores of rats were protected during this study; protection lasted for as long as 8 months. These studies demonstrate that the protective, vaccine-like effect following NPS ablation [ 21 ] is mediated by multiple immune mechanisms appearing after NPS treatment involving elimination of the immunosuppressive TME combined with both adaptive and innate immune mechanisms with influxes of adaptive memory T-cells and specific subsets of NK and NKT-cells expressing activation phenotypes.
Although the NPS-induced immune-mediated vaccine-like effect does not specifically constitute typical immunotherapy, NPS does achieve a major immunotherapy goal in exploiting adaptive and importantly innate immune cells in order to destroy tumors [ 28 ]. The TME plays multiple roles in tumor progression, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and drug resistance, as well as angiogenesis and metastasis [ 30 ]. Without NPS treatment, the immunosuppressive TME prevents effective innate and adaptive immune responses, requiring humane euthanasia 2—3 weeks after tumor initiation due to tumor burden [ 21 ].
However, this includes only 0. Yet afterwards, Tregs regress and DCs increase Figure 3 for antigen recognition. Tumor cell death is also promoted by death of tumor stroma tissues such as host somatic cells and macrophages, which promote tumor growth, stimulate immune suppression, and interact with cancer stem cells, contributing to tumorigenesis, drug resistance and metastasis [ 35 ].
Since NPS eliminates significant cell numbers in the TME, immune cells present after the first few days most likely represent some surviving cells and, more importantly, the influx of cells from the surrounding liver tissue. These cell subsets likely played an important role in HCC tumor elimination after NPS, as well as bridged the gap between innate and adaptive immunity.
Some NK cell ligands have been identified in humans and mice [ 27 ], but none in rats. When stress is defined as tumorigenesis, infection or injury, there are several common factors that can activate NKG2D receptors, including DNA damage responses, programmed cell death, upregulation of heat shock pathways, unfolding protein response, oxidative stress, and inflammation. After NPS, tumor cells are severely distressed, but do not die immediately. DNA damage and active caspases can be seen hours after treatment [ 21 , 24 ].
NK cells do not express T-cell or B-cell antigen receptors. Instead, NKs integrate fixed numbers of inhibitory and activating receptors that determine NK cytotoxicity and cytokine release [ 38 ]. NK cells can be activated by at least two different mechanisms. In this study, inhibitory receptors were not characterized, primarily because antibodies are not available for these receptors in rats. Since the liver is an innate immune organ [ 14 ], analysis of immune response to HCC in the liver was of specific interest, especially for first-responding NK cells.
Rat NK cells are not well-characterized, but mice NKs are in Group 1 of three innate lymphoid cell groups ILCs based on cytokine production and transcription factors TFs regulating development and functions [ 41 ]. Fully functional NKs develop in fetal mouse liver and remain in adults, suggesting distinct liver NK precursor cells [ 43 ]. Rat NKs have been characterized primarily by morphology. The immune response in vaccinated rats to orthotopic challenge injections presented a somewhat different immune landscape than that seen after NPS treatment.
These MPEC were also elevated in the liver and spleen. This response is similar to the resolution of an acute infection when T-cells differentiate into MPECs expressing CD and elevated levels of BCL2 that are destined to provide long-term memory and SLECs expressing KLRG1 that have been repeatedly stimulated by antigens and undergo terminal differentiation and cellular senescence [ 49 , 50 ].
The CD receptor on T-cells can act as a co-receptor defining a specific T-cell subset [ 51 ] that secrete IL, which among other functions, recruits and activates granulocytes to promote inflammation [ 52 ]. NK cells [ 53 , 54 ] and other innate immune cells [ 55 , 56 ] have recently been shown to be capable of immunological memory. Other methods using electric fields, including electrochemotherapy ECT with bleomycin and irreversible electroporation with calcium recently induced similar vaccine-like effects in murine CT26 colon carcinoma cells [ 57 ], but the immune mechanisms remain to be investigated.
Furthermore, ECT with bleomycin induced a systemic immune response in a melanoma patient [ 58 ]. Here, we characterize the NPS-induced adaptive immune responses in blood, spleen and liver, which lasts for months in rats treated for HCC. An abscopal response is present in less well-established tumors, indicating that in established tumors, an immunosuppressive TME can become dominant in spite of the presence of NK, NKT and T-lymphocytes. However, NPS treatment can reserve this suppression and establish innate and adaptive immune response as tumors are regressing to establish the NPS-induced protective vaccine-like effect characterized here in rat HCC and in mouse metastatic breast cancer [ 23 ].
Challenge studies were initiated 6—7 weeks after NPS treatment. Animals were euthanized at various times post-treatment and challenged as indicated in the text and Figures. Three weeks after this second challenge injection, rats were humanely euthanized. No tumor growths were found on any livers. Cells were then stained for flow cytometry. Blood was diluted 1: The interphase containing the lymphocytes was collected and washed with FACS buffer. The following antibodies were used in specific phenotypic panels: Spleens were isolated from Sprague Dawley rats at various times post-treatment and post-challenge.
Splenocytes were isolated as described above. Various ratios of T-cells to labelled N1-S1 cells 5: The cells were washed and propidium iodide was added before running on flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was done by performing a comparison of means by T-test. The use of out-bred Sprague Dawley rats and variabilities among them, determination of cell phenotypes over long periods of time and, in some instances, the inclusion of small number of animals, presented conditions that sometimes did not allow values to reach statistical significance.
Nevertheless, there were obvious trends that demonstrated changes that were considered meaningful. The studies presented here and the studies by Guo and colleagues [ 23 ] are the first reports to demonstrate directly that NPS induces immune memory responses in rats and mice, respectively. Furthermore, these immune responses are multifaceted. In addition to showing that Tem and Tcm cells are present in blood and spleens in both studies, the study here further shows that there is a robust innate immune response in the liver and spleens of rats treated with NPS for HCC.
She stays home when her younger brother Jamie goes to school. Ada plans to sneak out with Jamie early when her Mother is asleep. Will she make it, or will she get caught? Read the book to find out. I recommend this book to kids from grades five to seven. This book is historical fiction. This could have happened in real life, so I find that very interesting. I also love that Ada cares so much about her brother Jamie. She would do anything to protect Jamie. There is also a sequel that I am currently reading because I loved the first one so much.
Imagine that you were born with a facial deformity and everybody looked at you whenever you are in public. In the book Wonder a boy named Auggie had that deformity and he was homeschooled until his parents decided to bring him to school to start 5th grade. Will Auggie make friends or will he be stared at the rest of his life?
Read the book to find out how he turns out. I recommend this book for grades four and up. The book also is a great book to read out loud to a class because it leads to a really good discussion. This realistic fiction book is so great that they made a movie out of it.
There are some other books that are based on Wonder called Auggie And Me and a picture book for little kids. This is a wonderful book, please read it. Auggie is an extraordinary character. Could you imagine having to leave everything behind and work at a factory to survive because of your religion?
Well, Leon Leyson was just a young Jewish boy when this happened to him during the Holocaust. Also I like this book because I really like history. I think it is interesting that Leon Leyson shares his life in this autobiography because it is his life and really tells what it was like to live through this time. I would give this book 9 out of ten stars. I rate this book for 5th graders and up, because it has difficult words, but also deals with a difficult topic. Do you wish your dreams could come true?
In the book Sugar and Ice a girl named Claire had her dream come true. Finally, she gets her chance. The judges think that she is good enough to be able to go. Also, when she starts skating at Lake Placid, she meets othe girls who really only care about winning and not about having a good time skating because of the level of competition there. A girl named Alexis is the meanest. I like this book because Claire has a chance to do want she wanted to do her whole entire life.
Will her dream came true? I rate this book a 9 out of 10 stars because Kate Messner did a really good job when it came to showing what Claire was thinking and writing to her sister. This is one reason why it is a really great book.
I recommend this book for 4th grade and up because it has some hard words. Have you ever wanted to live on a tropical island far away from the rest of the world? Also, her mother is gone too because when Nim was 1 year old, her mom went off to study the stomach of a whale, and got swallowed by it. Nim has to stay with her seal Selkie and ward off the tourists that come to her island to explore. They are her enemies.
I had a few mix-ups when I was reading it in 4th grade, and that was because it had some really tricky words. This book was made into two movies. This book is absolutely amazing, and if you like books with islands and adventures, I would recommend this for you.
Would that be a bad thing, or could it be a good thing? It is a story of life, love, death and forgiveness; an account of the love between two brothers in impossible circumstances — and it is certain to weave a path to the hearts and imaginations of all the young people in your classroom. Those costs include their lessons, their possessions and, most importantly, their freedom. PJ Neumann 1 of 3 appeared first o Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon.
This is the best adventure book I have ever read out of all of the books I have! I hope you will enjoy this book. If you love horses, read the book Birth of a Foal. This nonfiction book is about a mare having a foal. The foal is ready to join the herd. I love this book. Sometimes I wish I could be a foal and grow up like a horse in the wild. There are a lot of great photographs of the mare and foal and the herd.
What I also like about this book is that there are a lot of words for me to read. I recommend this book for 4th grade or higher because the words in it are hard. I rate this book a 10 out of a 10 horses because this book has a lot of details about horses. I love horses so much, and I love this book too. Have you ever heard of mud that gives you a rash with red bumps and blisters with a tingling sensation?
Well the book Fuzzy Mud by Louis Sachar is about a girl named Tamaya and a boy named Marshall who take a shortcut home, and the school bully follows them. In the woods Tamaya finds a mud puddle that had leaves around it but not on it. She touched the mud. At first nothing happened. Later, when she went home, her hand had a tingling sensation. If you want to know what happens next, read the book. I loved the book Fuzzy Mud because it had a lot of suspense and action, although it does have some words that are hard to read.
It does not have any pictures. However, the book does have something special. On some of the pages, there is script written by another group of people that has something to do with the mud. This is another reason why I like the book. I rated the book 9 out of 10 stars. I recommend it for grades 4 and up because it does get scary.
I like this book because in the end the two main groups of people meet, and you kind of figure out what is going on. There is also a cliffhanger at the end of the book. Have you ever been scared of getting braces?
If you like graphic novels, Smile is for you. In the book Smile there is a girl named Raina. This book is a wonderful book, I rate it a 9 out of This book is great for third grade and up. I love this book because I like graphic novels. Have you ever read a book about sea ninjas? The book Treasure Hunters by James Patterson is about a dad and his kids who go treasure hunting when there is a bad storm.
Their dad has to go out on the deck and put down the sails, when he falls off. The main characters are the four kids Bick, Beck , Tommy and Storm, who now are on their own.
Tamaya's Recruitment (Don't Change Book 3) - Kindle edition by Joshua Edwards, Andrea Via. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones. Zombies Rising (To Fight, To Learn, To Love Book 1) . Don't Change: Tamaya's Recruitment (Volume 3) Don't Change: Joshua's Recruitment (Volume 1).
I think this is a great adventure book with lots of action, which I love. I recommend the book to 4th grade and up, because there are some hard words to read. I give this book an 8 out of 10 stars. This book is a part of a series of five. I am going to read them all. I like this book because I like James Patterson. If you have already read and liked his other books, you should try this book about sea ninjas. Dav Pilkey is a great author and artist because he writes the Dog Man books and the Captain Underpants books.
I think the Dog Man books are funny and I think you should read them too. In the first book, Dogman, there was a cop and a dog. Knight and Greg are best friends. The chief told them to get out and they left. However, an evil catcat named Petey wants to get rid of them and sets a bomb. This is how Dog Man gets created. I give these books an 8 out 10 stars.
I recommend you read the books to see what happens. I like them because I like adventure books.
I also like them because there is action , and they are comics. I have read the first two books in the series , but I definitely want to read them all. Have you ever wished you had the power to time travel? Well a little girl named Annie had that power. She was with her mom visiting her sick grandmother when she went to sleep.
When she woke up, she was back in ! Annie met her grandmother when she was a little girl. Molly became her best friend. They went on adventures. I recommend this book for 4th grade and up. It was a fun book to read, but it has some tricky words. I would rate this book an eight out of 10 because it is a really amazing book.
I wish I could go back in time to hang out with my grandmother to see what she used to do. The Worst Years of My Life. Take advice from Rafe, a middle school student. I read Middle School: The book is about a character named Rafe and his friend Leo. When Rafe gets kicked out of 2 schools, Hills Village is the only middle school that will accept him.