Instrumentación 6: Caudal (Instrumentacion Industrial) (Spanish Edition)

Española De Instrumentacion Primaria, S.A.

It is necessary to account with programs of this type since the ARN it licenses the construction and operation of Nuclear Power Plants NPPs and other outstanding facilities and it inquires its operation according to its own standards. With these tools its are auditing the calculations that the Responsible Entities of the operation make to guarantee the operability of the NPPs assisting the mentioned standards. The analysis with computational codes is used as a tool to achieve the best understanding in the behavior of the plant in union with the engineering approach, the manual calculations, the data analysis and the experience in the operation of the machine.

The complete replacement of the SIEC of Nuclear Power Cofrentes is framed within the process of modernization of systems instrumentation and control in which the Spanish nuclear power plants are immersed, process caused by an increase in security, as well as the obsolescence and lack of spare parts. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Requisitos de seguridad especificos. This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. It establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant.

It will be useful for organizations involved in the design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems. Conformation of an evaluation process for a license renovation solicitude of a nuclear power plant in Mexico; Conformacion de un proceso de evaluacion para una solicitud de renovacion de licencia de una central nuclear en Mexico.

Narvarte, Mexico D. So that the construction stages, of operation, closing, dismantlement and the radioactive waste disposal of a nuclear power plant NPP are carried out in Mexico, is necessary that the operator has a license, permission or authorization for each stage. Defining the process to continue and to generate the documents that would help in this phase as normalization, guides, procedures, regulations, controls, etc.

Conformation of an evaluation process for a license renovation solicitude of a nuclear power plant in Mexico. Part 2; Conformacion de un proceso de evaluacion para una solicitud de renovacion de licencia de una central nuclear en Mexico. The present work has the purpose of defining the steps to continue and to generate the documents that would help in this process, as the normative, guides, procedures, regulations, controls, etc. The advance carried out in the continuation of the conformation of an evaluation process of license renovation solicitude is also exposed, taking like base the requirements established by the CNSNS, the regulator organ of the United States US NRC , and the IAEA for license renovation solicitude of this type.

A summary of the licenses granted from the beginning of commercial operation of the NPP-L V is included, both units and the amendments to these licenses, explaining the reason of the amendment shortly and in the dates they were granted. A brief exposition of the nuclear power plants to world level that have received extension of its operation is included.

The normative that can be applied in a life extension evaluation is presented, the evaluation process to continue with the guides of the US NRC, the reach of the evaluation and the minimum information required to the licensee that should accompany to their solicitude. Development of the process of energy transfer from a nuclear Power Plant to an intermediate temperature electrolyse; Desarrollo del proceso de transferencia de energia desde una central nuclear a un electrolizador de temperatura intermedia. Fifty million tons of hydrogen are consumed annually in the world in various industrial processes.

Among them, the ammonia production, oil refining and the production of methanol. One of the methods to produce it is the electrolysis of water, oxygen and hydrogen. This process needs electricity and steam which a central nuclear It can be your source; Hence the importance of developing the transfer process energy between the two. The objective of the study is to characterize the process of thermal energy transfer from a nuclear power plant to an electrolyzer of intermediate temperature ITSE already defined.

The study is limited to the intermediate engineering process, from the central to the cell. Regulatory activities related with the modification of the frequency of the programmed stoppings of the Argentine nuclear centrals ; Actividades regulatorias relacionadas con la modficacion de la frecuencia de las paradas programadas de las centrales nucleares argentinas.

The mandatory character documentation of the Argentinean nuclear power stations in Embalse and Atucha I, required the realization of a programmed stoppings every twelve months to execute that settled down in the maintenance and surveillance programs for each installation. The mentioned applications were founded in economic aspects and in inclining to a decrease in the doses of the workers that perform in the activities that are carried out in the programmed stops.

The adopted position by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority to decide on these applications was based on the result of diverse evaluations that included the use of the Probabilistic Analysis of Safety specific of each power station, the operative experience resultant of the execution of the preventive maintenance program, and of the results of the repetitive tests and of the inspections in service. The regulatory decisions were different in each case. Indeed, the Embalse nuclear power station was authorized by the Regulatory Authority to modify from twelve to eighteen months the period among the realization of the repetitive tests and of the preventive maintenance, conditioned to the execution of some specific regulatory requirements.

On the other hand, the Atucha I nuclear power station was not authorized to modify this period. In this presentation that is detailed the acted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in both cases, the used analysis tools, and the foundation of the adopted decisions. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, Mexico D. At the present time nuclear power reactors exist for the electricity generation operating in the world and 63 in construction. The nuclear fuel that is used in the nuclear reactors is retired of the reactor core when the energy that this contained has been extracted.

This used fuel is known as spent nuclear fuel, the problem with this fuel is that was irradiated inside the reactor and continuous emitting a high radiation, as well as a significant heat quantity when being extracted, for what is necessary to maintain it in cooling and with some shielding to be protected of the radiation that emits.

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This objective is achieved confining the fuel in the spent nuclear fuel pool, where it is cooled and the same pool provides the necessary shielding to maintain the surroundings in safety radiation levels for the personnel that work in the power plant. An inconvenience of the pools is its limited storage capacity and that after certain time is necessary to remove the fuel, according to the established regulation to continue operating.

To correct this inconvenience, two alternatives of spent fuel disposition exist, 1 the final disposition in deep geologic repositories and 2 the reprocessing and recycled of spent fuel. Each alternative presents its particularities and specific problems; however taking many years to be able to implement anyone of them.

To carry out the second option, is indispensable to estimate the total mass of actinides generated in the spent nuclear fuel, that which represents to develop a methodology for it, this action is the main purpose of the present work. Inside our calculation method was necessary to appeal to diverse computation tools as the codes Origin-S and Keno V.

Later on the obtained were compared with a problem type Benchmark, being obtained a smaller absolute error to 1.

Company informations Española De Instrumentacion Primaria, S.A.

Heat exchanger tests were carried out and data in the thermodynamic models developed, turned and can verify that the efficiency of heat exchange met the requirements. The work concluded complying at all times with the technical specifications and quality proposals by the Department of engineering at the Central Nuclear de Cofrentes. Pointing Out Main Factors from Design, Construction and Operating Experience of Existing Nuclear Plants for Assisting in Shaping Future Nuclear Power Programmes; Les principaux criteres degages de l'etude, de la construction et de l'exploitation des centrales nucleaires existantes et leur interet pour l'elaboration des futurs programmes d'energie d'origine nucleaire; Ukazanie osnovnykh faktorov proektirovaniya, stroitel'stva i opyta ehkspluatatsii sushchestvuyutsikh atomnykh ehlektrostantsij, chto dolzhno pomoch' pri sostavlenii budushchikh programm atomnoj ehnergetiki; Principales consideraciones relativas al diseno, construccion y explotacion de centrales nucleares , encaminadas a facilitar la preparacion de programas futuros de energia nucleoelectrica.

Il suggere la possibilite de prevoir des maintenant des cycles de combustible pour une plus longue periode. El estado actual de la tecnologia de los reactores y su evolucion continua en la ejecucion de los proyectos hasta ahora realizados, muestra una neta tendencia hacia la reduccion de los costos del ciclo de combustible y de los elementos componentes de las centrales. Contribuye a esta evolucion la tendencia cada vez mas acusada a construir centrales de mayores dimensiones, y el hecho de que las previsiones acerca de las condiciones futuras de la red electrica sugieren la conveniencia de instalar centrales nucleares de mayor capacidad que las centrales clasicas, en razon de la disminucion que experimentaran los gastos de produccion gracias a la puesta en servicio de esas nuevas unidades.

En lo que se refiere a la experiencia adquirida en e l diseno, construccion y pruebas de las centrales en funcionamiento, la memoria estudia los principales factores que han de tenerse en cuenta en la preparacion de planes para el futuro, tambien desde e l punto de vista de los programas de construccion y de pruebas. El autor insiste en el problema del confinamiento, en razon de la favorable influencia que sobre la elecion del emplazamiento de las centrales puede ejercer el perfeccionamiento de blindajes muy seguros, que podrian construirse sin aumento sensible del costo, teniendo en cuenta la especial situacion de Italia en lo que se refiere a ciertos aspectos del problema.

En cuanto a la experiencia adquirida en la explotacion de centrales. The Governing Board of the CFE announcement that will give special continuation to the behavior on the operation and reliability of the NPP-L V, because the frequency of not announced interruptions was increased 7 times more in the last three years. Nuclear insurance in Central and Eastern Europe. In the world outside the former Soviet Union, insurance industries in their respective domestic markets have pooled their resources so as to provide a secure and cost-effective conduit for the transaction of insurance business on behalf of the nuclear industry.

These are the so-called nuclear pools. This paper explains the four main principles behind nuclear liability insurance and discusses their application to Central Europe and in particular to the problems facing the nuclear industry in Eastern Europe. Fukushima, two years later, modification requirements in nuclear power plants; Fukushima, dos anos despues, requerimientos de modificacion en centrales nucleares de potencia.

The occurred events in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daiichi as consequence of the strong earthquake of 9 grades in the Richter scale and the later tsunami with waves estimated in more than 14 meters high began a series of important questions about the safety of the nuclear power plants in operation and of the new designs. Firstly, have allowed to be questioned on the magnitudes and consequences of the extreme external natural events; that can put in risk the integrity of the safety barriers of a nuclear power plant when being presented in a multiple way.

They have also realized evaluations about accidents and their impact in the safety, analysis and studies too that have forced to the regulatory bodies to continue a systematic and methodical revision of their procedures and regulations, to identify the possible improvements to the safety in response to the events happened in Japan; everything has taken it to determine the necessity to incorporate additional requirements to the nuclear power plants to mitigate events Beyond the Design Base.

In this work an exposition is presented on the modification requirements to confront external natural events Beyond the Design Base, and its application in our country. Since the beginning of their commercial operation, the nuclear power plants of Asco and Vandellos have made design modifications aimed at improving the safety, reliability and operation of the plants.

The article lists the mos important actions already carried out or in the project phase for the 3 plants in the primary and secondary system, electrical and instrumentation systems and auxiliary systems, highlighting the problems and the solutions adopted in the most relevant modifications. As Nuclear Power Plants get older it is more important to know the real condition of low voltage, instrumentation, power and control cables.

Additionally, as new plants are being built, the election of cables and the use of in-situ monitoring techniques to get reliable aging indicators, can be very useful during the plant life. The goal of this Project is to adapt, optimize and asses Condition Monitoring techniques for Nuclear Power Plants cables. These techniques, together with the appropriate acceptance criteria, would allow specialists to know the state of the cable over its entire length and estimate its residual life. In the Project, accelerated ageing is used in cables installed in European NPPs in order to evaluate different techniques to detect local and global ageing.

Conceptos Generales de Instrumentación

Results are compared with accepted tests to validate its use for the estimation of cables residual life. This paper describes the main stages of the Project and some results. This situation obliges the implementation of procedures to assure the fulfilment of the programs for the need to make the reparations or mechanics construction.

This paper describes the considerations that has been taken into account to repare some components of the plant. The works carried out constitute applications to the TIG weld procedure. Risks and challenges associated with the design and construction of a nuclear power plant; Control de riesgos y retos asociados al diseno y construccion de una central nuclear. The construction of a nuclear power plant project, considering the period prior to the operation of the plant, requires a very strict risk control to ensure compliance with a series of challenges.

The present paper identifying the most important challenges facing the construct ability and license requirements of the process, identifying the interfaces and proposing a methodology of construction to meet the challenge of a construction process in 5 years. Commissioning Experience from the Agesta Nuclear Power Plant; Experience acquise lors des essais de mise en service de la centrale nucleaire d'Agesta; Opyt po vvedeniyu v ehkspluatatsiyu yadernoj ehnergeticheskoj ustanovki Agesta; Experiencia adquirida con la puesta en marcha de la central nucleoelectrica de Agesta.

The Agesta Nuclear Power Plant is a pressurized heavy water reactor of the pressure vessel type, fuelled with natural uranium. It was commissioned with light water from December to May Observations of a more general interest were made during this commissioning essentially on the following topics; a cleanliness of primary circuit b valve operation c pressurization of the primary circuit d water leakage e refuelling machinery f containment testing. Les essais de mise en service ont ete faits avec de l'eau ordinaire, de decembre a mai La mise en service a permis de faire des observations d'interet general sur les sujets suivants: Se mantuvo en funcionamiento con agua ligera entre diciembre de y mayo de Durante esta prueba, se efectuaron observaciones de interes mas general, relacionadas esencialmente con las siguientes cuestiones: Reaktor byl vveden v ehkspluatatsiyu na obychnoj vode v period s dekabrya goda po maj goda.

Zamechaniya bolee obshchego kharaktera byli sdelany vo vremya ehkspluatatsii v osnovnom po sledukhshchim temam: Apart from the minimum operational and safety requirements for the siting of nuclear power stations, the paper proposes introducing the total mean dose to the general population as an additional criterion. Although the calculation of this dose presupposes a detailed knowledge of the main pathways by which the population may be irradiated in case of an accident, the present state of power reactor technology makes it possible to tackle the problem already.

An estimate of the total mean dose per unit time involves the safety aspects of the reactor, the features of the site considered, and the way in which these features affect safety. The authors derive the general formula expressing the total mean dose as a function of all the parameters concerned. It is pointed out that in the case of accidents in which the release of fission products is independent of the mechanisms of irradiation, this formula is considerably simplified and makes it possible to establish a classification of the relative suitability, from the safety point of view, of the sites proposed, without touching upon the difficult problem of the definition of accidents and their probabilities of occurrence.

A further simplification accrues when there exist predominant mechanisms governing the accidental irradiation of the population. The approach adopted is particularly well suited to calculations with digital computers, and helps to identify the areas in which information is lacking and to direct research intended to remove these deficiencies.

Aunque el calculo de esa dosis implica el conocimiento detallado de los caminos principales por los cuales la poblacion puede ser irradiada en el caso de un accidente, el estado actual de la tecnologia de los reactores nucleares de potencia permite ya. Guia de Seguridad Especifica. The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to establish safety standards to protect health and minimize danger to life and property - standards which the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which a State can apply by means of its regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety.

A comprehensive body of safety standards under regular review, together with the IAEA's assistance in their application, has become a key element in a global safety regime. In the mids, a major overhaul of the IAEA's safety standards programme was initiated, with a revised oversight committee structure and a systematic approach to updating the entire corpus of standards. The new standards that have resulted are of a high calibre and reflect best practices in Member States. With the assistance of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its safety standards.

Safety standards are only effective, however, if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services - which range in scope from engineering safety, operational safety, and radiation, transport and waste safety to regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations - assist Member States in applying the standards and appraise their effectiveness. These safety services enable valuable insights to be shared and I continue to urge all Member States to make use of them. Regulating nuclear and radiation safety is a national responsibility, and many Member States have decided to adopt the IAEA's safety standards for use in their national regulations.

For the contracting parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions. The standards are also applied by designers, manufacturers and operators around the world to enhance nuclear and radiation safety in power generation, medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education. The added value of the replica simulators in the exploitation of nuclear power plants; El valor anadido de los simuladores replica en la explotacion de las centrales nucleares.

Nuclear power plants full scope replica simulators were in the past solely designed following operational personnel training criteria. Nevertheless, these simulators not only feature a high replica control room but also provide an accurate process response. Control room replica simulators are presently based on complex technological platforms permitting highest physical and functional fidelity, allowing to be used as versatile and value added tools in diverse plants operation and maintenance activities.

Tecnatom has extended the use of such simulators to different engineering applications. The role of nuclear power plants in the wholesale electricity market; El papel de las centrales nucleares en el mercado mayorista de electricidad. The Spanish electricity market has been running foe eleven years and its rules and procedures have proven compatible with a safe and stable operation of the nuclear power plants, helped by a wide portfolio of technologies in the Spanish system.

In the near future, two issues emerge as a potential threat: Stricter rules on network development and operation and greater respect to the plants operational needs have to be pushed forward by the industry to succeed in life extension programs. Central Institute for Nuclear Research - This first overall survey covers the development of the ZfK since , the main research activities and results, a description of the departments responsible for the complex implementation of nuclear research, the social services for staff and the activities of different organizations in the largest central institute of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR.

Regulatory challenges in the management of aging of structural materials in nuclear power plants; Retos reguladores en la gestion del envejecimiento de los materiales estructurales de centrales nucleares. The article discusses two major pathways by which a regulatory body, and in particular the CSN, may participate in the acquisition of the necessary knowledge on mechanisms of aging of nuclear structural materials: It notes the importance of this participation to carry out its regulatory function based on the knowledge acquired and the unique challenge of transferring that knowledge to rules and guidelines for their application.

It calls for the presence of regulatory bodies in R and D project funded by the EU and the transfer of the results of such projects to codes, standards or guidelines for feasible implementation. Need for a probabilistic fire analysis at nuclear power plants; Necesidad de un analisis probabilista de incendios en una central nuclear.

Key figures Española De Instrumentacion Primaria, S.A.

Although fire protection standards for nuclear power plants cover a wide scope and are constantly being updated, the existence of certain constraints makes it difficult to precisely evaluate plant response to different postulatable fires. These constraints involve limitations such as: Antes de que se descubriera la posibilidad de emplear la energia nuclear para producir electricidad, la mayor parte de las empresas que actualmente explotan centrales nucleares explotaban centrales alimentadas con combustibles fosiles y hablan establecido sistemas de control relativamente completos y adecuados para los combustibles de ese tipo.

Los responsables de las centrales nucleoelectricas deben disponer de sistemas no menos adecuados para controlar los materiales nucleares especiales que utilizan. La explotacion de los reactores de potencia no es una ciencia antigua, pero durante el tiempo relativamente corto que ha transcurrido desde que se inicio su empleo los ingenieros y hombres de ciencia han mejorado continuamente el diseflo del equipo y los metodos de trabajo con objeto de disminuir los costos de produccion y de lograr que las centrales nucleares puedan competir en el plano economico con las centrales clasicas.

La administracion de los materiales nucleares debe efectuarse con metodos modernos y eficientes a fin de que los adelantos tecnologicos que han permitido reducir los costos no resulten inutiles. The Nuclear Safety Council's Instruction IS on program requirements of fire protection at nuclear power plants; La instruccion IS del consejo de Seguridad Nuclear sobre requisitos del programa de proteccion contraincendios en centrales nucleares. The Nuclear Safety Councils Instrumentation IS is the standard that establishes the fire protection program requirements for the Spanish nuclear power plants with operating license in order to satisfy the two fire protection objectives, which are the adoption of the defense-in-depth principle for fire protection and, by fire area confinement, to ensure that one train of components needed to achieve and maintain the safe shutdown conditions is free of fire damage, and that radioactive liberation is minimized.

Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements. In the field of neutron data for standards, for fission and for fusion application, the nuclear charge distribution and odd-even effects for mass, charge and neutron number in the cold spontaneous fission of Cf were determined. The subthermal fission cross section measurements of U, U and Pu, were finalised. The dependence of the experimental weighting function of C 6 D 6 detectors on thickness of several 56 Fe samples was determined.

Fusion data studies involved the development of a light-ion telescope with improved time - and energy resolution. Double differential cross-sections of 9 Be were analysed. Radionuclide metrology dealt with the response of silicon detectors, as well as with the standardization of Ir sources. Progress was achieved in the preparation of dried solid spikes of uranium and plutonium for undiluted reprocessing input solution analysis. Preliminary studies on speciation of trace metals in biological fluids were successful.

Exploratory research resulted in first measurements of transition radiation properties. The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs — here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax manipulation instrument —, we show that de- centralized decisions are more profitable when tax differentials are small large.

Development of database for spent fuel and special waste from the Spanish nuclear power plants; Desarrollo de la base de datos para el combustible gastado y residuos especiales de las centrales nucleares espanolas. In the article is detailed how this strategic project essential to carry out the CTS centralized temporary storage future management and other project which could be emerged is being dealing with, This data base will serve as mechanics of relationship between ENRESA and Spanish NPPS, covering the expected necessary information to deal with mentioned future management of spent fuel and high activity radioactive waste.

Nuclear Electric's central dose record service. This paper describes the conception, development and operation of the Nuclear Electric Central Dose Record Service, including the initial philosophy considered necessary for a database for a large multi-site organisation, the setting up of the data and current routine operation. Lessons learned are briefly described. CDRS holds 35, records in a high security environment. The database includes records of radiation doses received by contractor's employees working at Nuclear Electric sites as well as dose records and dose histories for classified and non classified Nuclear Electric employees.

Update of foundation design modifications of data cables and piping in nuclear power plants in operation; Actualizacion de modificaciones de sieno de bases de datos de cables y conducciones en centrales nucleares en operacion. The scope of this application is the manage the life cycle of cables electrical and pipes of cables in Trillo NPP. The application is integrated in a configuration Control system, so both cables and conduits become elements of configuration and management of life and history associated with the of the relevant modifying documents. The guarantees criteria of physical separation of wires for jobs and for independent networks designed according to the redundancy of the Central System.

Calculating of radiation doses in rutinary unloads of liquid wastes from Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. Utilization of nuclear energy to generate electricity is increasingly being used to replace fossil fuels. During operation of nuclear power plants, radioactive materials are produced, a small fraction of which are released to environment as liquid or gaseous effluents. Estimation of radiation doses caused by effluents release has three purposes.

During design phase of a nuclear station it is useful to adapt the wastes treatment systems to acceptable limits. During licensing phase, the regulator organism verifies the design of nuclear station effectuating estimation of doses. Finally, during operation, before every unload of radioactive effluents, radiation doses should be evaluated in order to fulfill technical specifications limiting the release of radioactive materials to environment.

To perform calculations of individual doses due to liquid radioactive effluents unload in units 1 and 2 of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant In licensing phase. To perform a parametric study of the effect of unload recirculation over individual dose, since recirculation has two principal effects: To perform the calculation of collective doses causes by unloads of liquid effluents within a radius of 80 km of the plant caused by unload of liquid radioactive effluents during normal operation and does not include doses during accident conditions.

In Appendix C, units are explained. This work aims to present the implementation process of the Monitoring of the State and behavior of the systems in the Nuclear plan Almaraz. Will define the scope, process, frequencies and criteria of evaluation of the State and behavior of the systems included in the Plan of reliability, as well as the documentary requirements of this evaluation. Cases will also be collected practical real phenomena detected during monitoring degradation made and will explain the actions taken prior to the failure.

Central depression of nuclear charge density distribution. The center-depressed nuclear charge distributions are investigated with the parametrized distribution and the relativistic mean-field theory, and their corresponding charge form factors are worked out with the phase shift analysis method. The central depression of nuclear charge distribution of 46 Ar and 44 S is supported by the relativistic mean-field calculation. As a result, the central proton densities of 46 Ar and 44 S are highly depressed, and so are their central charge densities.

The charge form factors of some argon and sulfur isotopes are presented, and the minima of the charge form factors shift upward and inward when the central nuclear charge distributions are more depressed. Besides, the effect of the central depression on the charge form factors is studied with a parametrized distribution, when the root-mean-square charge radii remain constant.

Optimization and improvement of the technical specifications for Santa Maria de Garona and Cofrentes nuclear power plants; Optimizacion y mejora de las especificaciones tecnicas de funcionamiento para las centrales de Santa Maria de Garona y Cofrentes. Technical Specifications TS form one of the basic documents necessary for licensing nuclear power plants and are required by the Government in accordance with Article 26 of the Regulation for Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities.

They contain specific plant characteristics and operating limits to provide adequate protection for the safety and health of operators and the general public. For operator actuation, TS include all the surveillance requirements and limiting operating conditions operation at full power, startup, hot and cold shutdown, and refueling outage of safety-related systems.

They also include the conventional support systems which are necessary to keep the plant in a safe operating conditioner to bring it to safe shutdown in the event of incidents or hypothetical accidents. The optimized and improved TS are simplified versions of the current ones and facilitate the work of plant operators. They help to prevent risks, and reduce the number of potential transients caused by the large number of tests required by current TS.

Plant operational safety is enhanced and higher effective operation is achieved. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation; Equilibre entre automatisation et action humaine dans la conduite des centrale nucleaires, resultats de la cooperation internationale. Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation.

However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants.

Facing this climate, in the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation. Dans certaines applications, l'utilisation de l'automatisation a ete le facteur decisif qui a permis a la technologie des centrales de progresser jusqu'a son etat actuel. Les exigences de l'opinion publique en matiere de securite renforcee ont conduit a l'utilisation d'une plus grande redondance et a une plus grande diversification et ceci, en retour, a encore accru le niveau d'automatisation.

Toutefois, il est possible que le facteur preponderant de cet accroissement de l'automatisation soit constitue par les progres effectues dans la technologie de l'information. Plus recemment, l'attention s. Fuel cycle management by the electric enterprises and spanish nuclear Power plants; Gestion del ciclo de combustible por las empresas electricas y centrales nucleares espanolas. The Group addresses the nuclear plant common issues in relation to the operation and management of the nuclear fuel in their different stages of the Fuel Cycle. The article reviews the activities developed by the Group in the Front-End, mainly in the monitoring of international programs that define criteria to improve the Fuel Reliability and in the establishment of common bases for the implementation of changes in the regulation applying the nuclear fuel.

Concerning the Back-End the Group focuses on those activities of coordination with third parties related to the management of used fuel. The types of reactor to be erected and the types of fuel to be initially used in them are well appreciated but of course the author's conclusions will necessarily become less certain with the passage of time.

The chemical processes which must be applied to irradiated fuels will depend on the type of fuel, its burn-up etc. Consideration is therefore given to the quantities of fission products and heavy isotopes which may be produced, the forms in which they may leave the chemical processing streams and the methods available for handling them safely, either by storage or by disposal. Il donne une evaluation fort judicieuse des types de reacteurs dont la construction est envisagee et des genres de combustibles qu'il est question d'y utiliser pendant la periode initiale; toutefois, ses conclusions auront avec le temps de moins en moins de valeur.

En effet, le traitement chimique auquel on devra soumettre le combustible irradie depend du genre de ce dernier, de son taux de combustion, etc. L'auteur tient donc compte des quantites de produits fissiles et d'isotopes lourds qu'il sera possible de produire, des formes sous lesquelles ils pourront se presenter a la fin du traitement chimique et des methodes existantes permettant d'assurer leur manipulation sans danger en vue de leur stockage ou de leur elimination.

Se sabe con bastante certeza que tipos de reactores se construiran y el tipo de combustible que se empleara en ellos en un principio, pero estos conocimientos son. More child leukemia near nuclear power plants; Plus de leucemies chez l'enfant pres des centrales nucleaires. A French study shows that there are more cases of child leukemia near nuclear power plants but the statistics is low: The same study shows that the excess is not due to the releases of gaseous effluents from the plant, there is no relationship between the excess and a particular type of plant or even a particular plant.

Some experts suggest that it might be the movement and intermingling of populations in the plant area that ease the propagation of infectious agents involved in child acute leukemia. A similar result was obtained in Germany a few years ago. Banco Central de Costa Rica. It has a prestressed concrete structure, and consists of a basement parking space for vehicles, and nine storeys, providing altogether a floor surface of 12, ms2.

The building rests on a ground area of 40 by 60 ms, and the main structure occupies 22 by 45 ms. This Bank is located in a district of narrow streets, but its main side overlooks a green open space, which will improve its visibility and appearance. The building structure is made up of a framework of prestressed beams and columns. The beams have been concreted at the site, and the joists, which are also prestressed, are factory made.

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Editorial Reviews. About the Author. El autor es Ingeniero en Telecomunicaciones () por Instrumentación 6: Caudal (Instrumentacion Industrial) (Spanish Edition) - Kindle edition by Alexander Espinosa. Download it once and read it on. Instrumentación 6: Caudal (Spanish Edition) [Alexander Espinosa] on Instrumentación 6: Caudal (Instrumentacion Industrial) and millions of other books are.

This framework, at each floor level, constitutes the basis of a continuous slab, which renders the total structure exceedingly stiff. The main continuous girders span The prestressing reinforcements consist of 6 Loeba type cables. This is an original design by Dr. Leonhardt, in which the cables are placed on three horizontal layers, of parabolic outline. Each cable is made up of 12 x 5. The cables run in corrugated metal tubes, and these were kept in precise position with the aid of distance pieces.

Nuclear Safety in Central and Eastern Europe. Nuclear safety is one of the critical issues with respect to the enlargement of the European Union towards the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. In the context of the enlargement process, the European Commission overall strategy on nuclear safety matters has been to bring the general standard of nuclear safety in the pre-accession countries up to a level that would be comparable to the safety levels in the countries of the European Union.

In this context, the primary objective of the project was to develop a common format and general guidance for the evaluation of the current nuclear safety status in countries that operate commercial nuclear power plants. Therefore, one of the project team first undertakings was to develop an approach that would allow for a consistent and comprehensive overview of the nuclear safety status in the CEEC, enabling an equal treatment of the countries to be evaluated.

Such an approach, which did not exist, should also ensure identification of the most important safety issues of the individual nuclear power plants. The efforts resulted in the development of the ''Performance Evaluation Guide'', which focuses on important nuclear safety issues such as plant design and operation, the practice of performing safety assessments, and nuclear legislation and regulation, in particular the role of the national regulatory body. The nuclear safety evaluation of each country was performed as a desktop exercise, using solely available documents that had been prepared by various Western institutions and the countries themselves.

Therefore, the evaluation is only of a preliminary nature. The project did not intend to re-assess nuclear safety, but to focus on a comprehensive summary. Exploitation of the nuclear plant Asco and the benthic community of the river Ebro; Explotacion de la central nuclear Asco y la comunidad bentonica del rio Ebro.

Piping and instrumentation diagram

The Ebro river passing through the town of Asco in the province of Tarragona, provides the necessary water for the operation of the nuclear plant. The conference is about some historicals task of the fission technology as well as many types of Nuclear Reactors. Enrichment of fuel, wastes, research reactors and power reactors, a brief advertisment about Uruguay electric siystem and power generation, energetic worldwide, proliferation, safety reactors, incidents, accidents, Three-Mile Island accident, Chernobil accident, damages, risks, classification and description of Power reactors steam generation, nuclear reactor cooling systems, future view.

Practical training in the operation of nuclear power plants with Interactive Graphic Simulator of Zorita; Formacion practica en la operacion de centrales nucleares con el Simulador Grafico Interactivo de Zorita. In April a collaboration agreement was signed between Gas Natural Union Fenosa and the Universad Politecnica de Madrid for the creation of the Aula Jose Cabrera dedicated to train professionals in the field of nuclear technology.

The use of the simulator intended to improve the quality of teaching in the area of Nuclear Engineering.

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Different manuals are under preparation to make it a suitable tool for teaching purpose. These manuals will guide the student so that learning takes place both through the guidance of the teacher as independently. Perspectives for nuclear electricity in Central Africa. The paper analyses the energy system of the Central African countries and evaluates the projected global demand of energy.

It compares the economy of the nuclear solution for satisfying future demands in relation to other forms of energy available in the region. Finally, it discusses the role that the countries involved can play in the fuel cycle supply of raw material, possibilities of fuel enrichment.

Perspectives for nuclear electricity in central Africa. The paper analyses the energetic system of Central African countries and evaluate the projected global demand of energy. It compares the economy of the nuclear solution for the satisfaction of future demand versus other forms of energy available in the region.

It appreciates finally the role that the countries involved can play in the fuel cycle supply of raw material, possibilities of fuel enrichment [fr. Nuclear power plant of Fessenheim: The seismic risk taken into account during the sizing of the nuclear power plant of Fessenheim seems to have been under evaluated at this time. The revaluation of the seismic risk, as proposed, until this day by EDF in order to the third ten-year visit of the power plant, planned for , leads to a significant under evaluation of the risk and then is not acceptable.

The present expertise details point by point the weaknesses of these revaluation. The power plant has been sized in an elastic manner that is generally strongly for the safety side. It is imperative to proceed the most quickly as possible to a deep control of the seismic resistance of the power plant of Fessenheim and then after having proceeded to a revision of the seismic risk in taking into account the actual knowledge in this field.

Monitoring systems online of oil for transformers of nuclear power plants; Sistemas de monitorizacion online del aceite para transformadores de potencia de Centrales. The nuclear power plants are showing their concern due to the existence of recent failures related to the bulky transformers of power. These transformers are not security, but are important for the production of power as its failure can cause transient on the floor, reactor scram or shooting, that can cause interruptions in the production of energy or might force us to reduce the power of production The analysis of gases dissolved in transformer oil is recognized as a trial key to identify a submerged transformer failure in oil.

With this analysis it is not possible to ensure that there is no damage in the transformer, but the probability of risk of this type of failure can be reduced.

The industry recommended to equip the new large power transformers with oil online monitoring systems and in some cases also be It recommended its use in existing transformers. Benchmarking on the management of radioactive waste in the Spanish Nuclear Power; Benchmarking sobre la gestion de residuos radiactivos en las Centrales Nucleares Espanola.

The main objective of this project is to perform a comparative evaluation of the practices carried out in the field of waste management in the Spanish nuclear power plants. Once compared such practices have been established recommendations that may be of interest for application in other plants. The power increase of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant is a project for the rehabilitation and modernization of the turbo and associated equipment to get an increase of its power and of its service life. The project scope includes the design, the engineering, the equipment supply, the installation, the testing and the commissioning.

This paper describes the first phase of the project. The Central Safety Department is responsible for handling all problems of radiation protection, safety and security of the institutes and departments of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, for waste water activity measurements and environmental monitoring of the whole area of the Center, and for research and development work mainly focusing on nuclear safety and radiation protection measures.

The research and development work concentrates on the following aspects: This report gives details of the different duties, indicates the results of routine tasks and reports about results of investigations and developments of the working groups of the Department. The reader is referred to the English translation of Chapter 1 describing the duties and organization of the Central Safety Department.

Proposal for implementation of alternative source term in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde; Propuesta de implementacion del termino fuente alternativo en la central nuclear Laguna Verde. In the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde will implement the extended power upbeat in both units of the plant.

Agree with methodology of NEDCP-A, constant pressure power up rate , and the source term of core, for accidents evaluations, were increased in proportion to the ratio of power level. Using the method of NEDCP-A to extended power upbeat conditions was determined that the dose value to main control room is very near to regulatory limit established by SRP 6. By the above and in order to recover the margin, the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde will calculate an alternative source term following the criteria established in RG 1.

This approach also have a more realistic dose value using the criterion of CFR This paper present the proposal of implementing the alternative source term in Laguna Verde. Possible uses and applications of drones in a nuclear power plant; Posibles usos y aplicaciones de los drones en una central nuclear. Celis del A, L. The versatility of drones is one of the strengths that have led to the rapid development of this technology, as they adapt relatively easily to new applications, presenting considerable advantages such as greater energy efficiency, longer life and a significant lower operation cost than manned systems.

The current applications of the drones, in addition to the military, are very wide and varied. The nuclear industry represents an important area of opportunity for drones, mainly in response to radiological emergencies, since in this case there is a latent risk of the general population being exposed to high radiation doses.

Drones can be used in environments with high chemical and radiological toxicity without endangering human lives. Some of the possible applications of the drones in a nuclear power plant are: New technologies of information treatment in the ERP of the Almaraz and Trillo nuclear power plants; Nuevas tecnologias de tratamiento de la informacion en el ERP de las centrales nucleares de Almaraz y Trillo. The Almaraz and Trillo Nuclear Power Plants are equipped with an Integrated Operation Management System SIGE , which covers practically all of their transactional and management needs in all areas, with the exception of some specific engineering and simulation tools.

In recent years, applications based on new computer technologies have been developed and integrated into the SIGE, including a Maintenance Dashboard, an Admissions Office ant the use of bar code readers, all of which are described in this article. General description of the Quality Assurance System established and implemented for the efficient development of the current activities specified in the Dismantling and Decommissioning Plan for Vandellos I Nuclear Power Plant.

Aspects related to the Quality organization, scope and applicability on the established Quality Assurance Manual, availability of requirements and recommendations on quality as well as actions to be taken for the correct verification on the quality and practical application of the Manual should be described.

Impacto economico del desmantelamiento de la central nuclear Vandellos I. This economic study examines the economic impact associated with the decommissioning process of the Vandellos I Nuclear Power Plant, measured in terms of the global income that generated the ending of the Nuclear Power Plant activity, on the territory.

Piping and instrumentation diagram - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

To this end, we will take into account the total investment that has been necessary to complete the process of decommissioning. The economic impact is calculated using the Input- Output methodology. Briefly, the Input-Output model defines a group of accounting relationships that reflect the links taking place within the production system. The Input-Output model is based on the assumption that given an increase decrease in the final demand of one sector, this sector should produce more less to satisfy this new demand. At the same time, this will lead to demand more less intermediate consumption goods from the remainder sectors of the economy.

Description Key figures Executives Activities. Executive information Download the executives list. Main activities Producer Distributor Service provider Structural testing equipment. Secondary activities Producer Distributor Service provider Arc welding machinery and equipment Soldering and brazing machinery and equipment Capacitors, fixed Capacitors, variable Sound measuring instruments Vibration measuring instruments.

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