Her work belongs to the transformation period; she wrote, on the one hand, in the tradition of nineteenth-century Realism, putting art to the service of the people, but on the other hand, took up all the major questions of the time: Dmitrieva should be revalued for her large body of work, her thorough knowledge of, and intensive focus on, rural and urban working life, as an author whose Realist inspiration reached far into the Soviet period and not least for her anti-sentimental narrative view of peasant life, which should be noted when we rewrite the traditions of village prose.
Of special interest are the detailed images of peasant life that the author knew through working as a teacher, village doctor and radical activist in rural villages. Her novellas and stories, like Clouds Tuchki, , Heave-ho! Maina-vira, and The Bees are Buzzing Pchely zhuzhzhat , , deal with peasant life with deep understanding and empathy for the heavy burden of men, women and children, like the ten-year-old peasant boy Dimka slaving in the glass factory Dimka , The great theme, in very different stories of the turn of the century, is that of happiness as imagined by the new woman.
Female happiness is the particular topic explored by Lidiia Ivanovna Veselitskaia V. Why is Mimi not happy? She could dance, draw and play the piano quite well, but her soul was not ready for life. The author points out critically that the woman question is not only an economic, but also a moral question, in the sense that women should learn to take care of themselves and dare to make their own decisions. Marriage is not the only option any more, as the contemporary woman critic, E. In her first period —87 , she explores female slavery in the novel, A High Price to Pay: A Family Story Dorogoi tsenoi: An exemplary novel of female slavery is Funeral Feast Pominki , , which shows what remains after such a self-abnegating life: The depiction of female self-abnegation reveals Shapir as a radical cultural critic: In the period —, Shapir accomplishes a gendered inversion whereby, like other contemporary women writers, she replaces male characters with women whose desires and deeds now organize the plot.
It is the working-class woman whose life and setting the author vividly depicts in detail, and who, the author believes, is ready to take up the challenges of the modern world. In the latter, Shapir shows three models for women which were possible in the ss, symbolized by three sisters: Shapir broadens the woman question, not only emphasizing work, but also the aim for equality in difference; the new woman strives for independence in life and love.
Shapir shows the difficult psychological obstacles that the new woman has to overcome. The author encourages the heroines to make their own decisions, however painful.
The heroines are fatherless and mothers play an important role, not so much as educators, but rather as allies. Shapir recalls the literary tradition of her female predecessors, while simultaneously adopting the new possibilities given to women writers within the expanded ideological differentiation of Realism and within the feminist movement.
The definition of the genre used by scholars identifies its earlier Western European model and emphasizes its popularity, the material success of its authors, its woman-centred topics and characters and the female readers and writers. It was a product of new aesthetic preferences, new kinds of fantasies and new forms of distribution by literary and commercial institutions.
With numerous editions of her works, Verbitskaia achieved a commercial success unparalleled in her time; this was later on achieved for other women too, as their publisher presented motifs and relationships that were repeated and varied by women prose-writers over the next three decades.
All her novels cross boundaries of gender and class. Without doubt the appearance of women writers in the field of mass literature and their popularity among the readers can be seen as an innovative break. On the other hand, however, while women did write bestsellers, they wrote popular literature, which was not highly appreciated by the old elite. Women still wrote at the margins, i. From the point of view of the critics they still remained second-rank writers: Especially for the Russian Symbolists, the feminine was essential to the aesthetic concept based on the utopian unity of dual forces beyond the real and the ideal realms.
In Symbolist aesthetics the feminine was the material of art. Women writers, not accepted as purveyors of signs, functioned as signs for the male creator in need of a Muse and this became the main function for women in the social and the aesthetic world divided by gender roles and dominated by Symbolist men.
They expressed discomfort with the stereotype of reduction to a sign for the male interpreter and the function granted to women by Symbolist theory. They tested and varied representations of the Eternal Feminine and developed strategies of inversion accomplished by mimicry and deconstruction of dual gender hierarchies. Women writers reacted differently to expectations of them as women and poets.
Their poetic and cultural strategies often remained ambiguous, like the practices of mimicry and subversion, which approached each other when women played out the function of the mystical Muse or the femme fatale. In her sonnet collection, My Garden Moi sad , , her aim is to identify feminine creative subjectivity. As Kirsti Ekonen has argued, she does this in ways similar to those identified decades later by Western feminist theoreticians such as Luce Irigaray, by aspiring to language which is woman-centred, even within a male-centred world.
Her voice was, however, original and innovative, premature in its form. Its specific character was in relation to what was allowed to male writers, either as an overvaluation of, or as a rejection of, the male canon. Crisis discourse, which sought to replace the exhausted canons, emphasizing difference, was the space which women adopted to their advantage for their aim at self-assertion by aesthetic performance.
Esteemed forms of aesthetic activity were replaced by re-valued forms of creative communication, such as the salons which re-emerged as the space for women to combine public and private, pre-aesthetic and the high poetic of Symbolic aesthetics.
Ketevan "Katie" Melua is a Georgian-British singer and songwriter. She moved to the United Melua is fluent in English and Russian; despite still speaking Georgian . After hearing Melua sing "Faraway Voice" (a song she wrote about the death of Subsequent singles from the album did not repeat the success of the first. Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor. . Russia (and its successor, the USSR) did not adhere to the Berne Convention and this created . The music itself makes significant use of a number of Russian folk tunes in addition to two waltzes "Synopsis" of Mary Ann Braubach (dir.).
She was a brilliant and innovative poet, a prose-writer, a productive critic and one of the few women canonized by high literature. Gippius is exemplary in showing us that whatever aesthetic strategy and ideological position women writers of the Modernist period took up, they were forced to deal with femininity. The strategy of androgyny, displaying herself as an extraordinary individual merging feminine and masculine categories, led her, however, into a dilemma: Her biography has two versions: The story, which is based on the diary of the female narrator, tells the love story of two women actresses.
The setting is the apartment of one of the women, and they never leave it, except at the end; in the catastrophic culmination, Vera sacrifices her love and the narrator to pose in front of thirty-three painters, who produce thirty-three abominations, but cannot reproduce the original. Vera commits suicide and the female narrator becomes a mistress of one of the male painters.
The story is, obviously, metaliterary, taking place in the world of art and dealing with central categories of Symbolist aesthetics, such as mirrors and masks; it uses mimicry as the main strategy, in order to subvert the object of its parody, Symbolist aesthetics. The dilemmas of human embeddedness in nature, as part of meadows, forests, seas and the animal world, as well as in our own animal nature, imply a more broadly painted view of the world and the future: Amongst them were such innovative authors as Sofiia Iakovlevna Parnok — , Adelaida Kazimirovna Gertsyk — and Elizaveta Iurievna Kuzmina-Karavaeva — , as well as the already well-known and great creators of Russian poetry, Marina Tsvetaeva and Anna Akhmatova.
In literature-centred Russian culture, literature was always endowed with special ideological obligations that were, as a consequence of the high status of literature, submitted to rigorous control. Nevertheless, as we hope to have shown, women of the nineteenth century did not only accept the challenge and learn to answer the male questions, but they learned to formulate their own questions and topics. They broke out of the silence, adopted various genres, topics and narrative strategies.
They learned to communicate while writing and they created a tradition, which was not — or to a very small extent — noticed by contemporary male critics. Women and Russian Literature Bloomington and. Cambridge University Press, , p. Clarendon Press, , p. Virago Press, , pp.
Cambridge University Press, , pp. Aleksandra, , II, Astra, , pp.
Clyman and Diana Greene, pp. Verlag Otto Sagner, , pp. Indiana University Press, , pp. Thesen und Momentaufnahmen aus der Geschichte russischer Dichterinnen , ed. Band 16 , pp. Douglas Clayton Columbus, Ohio: Slavica, , pp. Edwin Mellen Press, New Perspectives , trans. Peter Lang, , pp. Key to her work was the reinterpretation of myth. Another path was to agree to be not a poet but a poetess.
Reiser, Literaturnye kruzhki i salony Leningrad: Priboi, ; V. Vatsuro, Iz istorii literaturnogo byta pushkinskoi pory Moscow: Kniga, ; Literaturnye salony i kruzhki, pervaia polovina XIX veka , ed. MGU, , p. Nauka, , p. Later, after , her poetic fame faded and the new generation of critics Chernyshevskii and Dobroliubov wrote of her scornfully. Rostopchina wrote long poems, verse drama, stories and novels, but her most popular works in the view both of contemporaries and later readers were her lyrics.
On Rostopchina see, for example, M. Nauka, , pp. Essays on Russian and Polish Women Writers , ed. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, , pp. An Anthology of Literary Theory and Criticism , ed. Rutgers University Press, , pp. However, the poem displays the very type of woman author as Rostopchina, who is explicitly addressed in former poems.
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