While formulating that concept, composers throughout history referred to it in an array of terms: Rather than several freely-composed ideas in imitation, composers settled on one for each fugue that would be present throughout the whole piece. The answer, being at a fixed harmonic distance from the theme, served to solidify the diatonic harmony that we recognize today, and move music away from its reliance on church modes. Coming after the theme at an interval of a fourth or fifth, the answer held powerful potential for modulation and return, the basic dramatic principle of diatonic music.
But the world of diatonic harmony was not to be fully opened until tools could keep pace with thought.
Now that that world was revealing itself, musicians strove to explore every island. The time before Bach was a charged, experimental age not unlike the age we are in now. A well-tempered instrument is one that allows every key to be played in tune . Prior to the late 17th century, musicians used purity of fifths as the basis for tuning.
This purity prevented variety. Tuning by fifths leads to enharmonic discrepancy known as the Pythagorean comma — A-flat and G today sound the same, though in theory they are different pitches. In the ancient tunings, you could have one or the other, but not both. The same went for any enharmonic relationship: Well-tempered violated the pure proportions of all intervals except the octave  , to balance the enharmonic discrepancy and allow every tonality to issue from one tuning.
What was lost in purity was gained in possibility.
Bach seized on this possibility in The Well-Tempered Clavier. He was not the first to write a set of pieces in every key, but his achievement was the most complete and profound. Its influence on other composers lasted at least years, and the sheer scope of his project still provokes awe today.
Simply put, The Well-Tempered Clavier is a collection of preludes and fugues written in every key. There are twelve notes in the chromatic scale, each one having a major and minor mode, thus 24 keys.
The second book was completed in in Leipzig. It recast some older music in combination with new pieces, especially preludes, that explored more modern styles.
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The second book is much longer in the whole than the first, and has more complex music, also especially in the preludes. The first book is more familiar because it is often played as a cycle in one concert, while the second book is full of longer, more dramatic preludes and fugues that seem to work today more as individual concert pieces.
Not only does he write a prelude and fugue in every key twice , but he also included every meter in use at the time, all combinations of duple, triple, simple and compound. The preludes represent a wide swatch of historical genres: Also he strove to make the fullest use of every fugal technique here fugue as procedure, or verb and their combinations: Tempered Fire Book 4: Innocence is pitted against arrogance as tempers rise and passions ignite to form a love as pure as the finest gold, fresh from the crucible and as strong as steel.
Thrown together amid tragedy and unsated passion, Tamera and Craig share a strong attraction that neither accepts as the first stages of love. Torn between desire and dislike, they must make peace with their pasts and God in order to open up to the love blossoming between them. It is a love that nothing can destroy when they come to understand that only when hearts are tempered, minds are opened and wills are softened can man discern the will of God for his life.
Tempered Dreams - Pamela Thibodeaux Dr. Scott Hensley introduced in Tempered Hearts has built a wall around his heart since the death of his wife and parents. Katrina Simmons is recovering from scars inflicted on her as a battered wife. Can dreams be renewed and faith strengthened?
Stanley Morrison is a young man at the start of his life.